[AS.] An important article of food made from the flour of wheat or other grains. In the process of bread-making from 50 to 60 per cent of water is added to the flour, in which yeast or other leavening matter is mixed. The yeast causes the dough to ferment, in which process the starch of the flour gives off carbonic acid gas. This forces the dough to swell, and fills it with a great number of air cavities, making it what is called light. The dough is then divided into loaves, and again left to stand, and again it swells. The loaves are then put into the oven, when the moisture evaporates and they swell, while a yellow crust begins to form on the surface. They are baked in the oven till the bottom crust is hard. The acid is driven out of the dough by the heat of the oven. Aerated bread was invented by Dr. Dauglish of Malvern. It has no leaven, but has carbonic acid gas forced into the dough by machinery. The mixture and kneading are also done by machinery. (See Biscuit.)