This section is from "The Domestic Encyclopaedia Vol1", by A. F. M. Willich. Amazon: The Domestic Encyclopaedia.

**Barn**, in husbandry, a covered building or place, with vent-holes in the sides, for laying up any kind of grain, hay, or straw.

This kind of store-house being so well known to all rural economists, no farther description will be necessary : but as several plans have been proposed for its improvement, we shall give an account of those which appear the most worthy of notice.

In the sixteenth volume of Mr. Arthur Youngs "Annals of Agriculture" we find the following description of a barn, etc. communicated to the editor by the Rev. Roger KEDINGTON, of Rougham, near Boxy St Edmund's:—" Let the underpinning be of brick or Stone, two feet high above ground, and let the sides be boarded: the roof of the barn will be best covered with reed or straw, and those of the stables with slate, or glazed tile; because they must be more flat, and the water which runs from the roof of the barn would injure most other coverings. At each end of the bam, and over the back-door, small doors, four feet square, should be fixed, at the height of twelve feet from the ground; the two former for putting corn in at the ends, and the latter for filling the middle of the barn, after the bays are full. All the bays should have a floor of clay or marl, and the threshing-floor be made with hard bricks, which will be sufficient for all sorts of grain, except wheat and rye ; and for threshing them, it will be good economy to have planks of oak or red deal, well titled together and numbered, to be laid down occasionally, and confined by a frame at their ends. A barn built on such a plan would hold a great deal of com, and be filled most conveniently: and if stacks of corn were, built at each end, they might be taken in without any carting. If more buildings are requisite, two may be added on the backside, like the stables in front: otherwise, if doors are made under the eaves on the back-side, as directed at the ends, and stacks be placed opposite to them (just far enough to avoid the eaves dropping), by placing a waggon between them and the barn by way of a stage, those stacks may be taken in without carting ; which method prevents a great waste of corn, and much trouble. The spars of the roofs of the stables rest upon the upper sills of the sides of the barn, and the outside wall of the stable is eight feet high : the barn supplying the highest side, and one end of each stable: and the stables in return are buttresses to the barn, and strengthen it greatly."

This building is of the following dimensions : The length of the barn inside is 68 feet; its width 22, 1 ; the height of the sides 17 feet ; of the front doors 15 feet; of the back doors 8 feet and 6 inches ; the stable at each side, in length 26 feet 6 inches, in width 14 feet; the door 4 feet; the threshing-floor has in front an entrance of 11 feet; behind, of 9 feet 6 inches ; and the width of the porch is 14 feet. The whole expence of erecting this fabric, in the year 1791, was stated to be nearly three hundred pounds.

Mr. Arthur Young has, in the same volume, inserted a plan for a barn, and other buildings necessary for cattle. The dimensions of this structure were given in consequence of a request made by the late General Washington to the author, that he would send him a sketch of a good barn, and the necessary out-buildings, proportioned to a farm of five hundred acres. The threshing-floor is large enough for three men to work on, who, in the course of a winter, can thresh the corn produced on such a farm.

This plan appears to us, by far the most advantageous of any that has fallen under our observation: we have therefore been induced to describe it, for the information of our readers.

The inner width of the barn is 27 feet square, on each side of the threshing-floor. The porch 11 feet 4 inches, by 12 feet 3 inches. Threshing-floor 39 feet by 20, on its upper end, and 121/2 feet at the small door of the porch, which is 61/2 feet in width. The great door at which the carts enter with corn, 1-1 feet 9 inches. The sheds for cattle, on the four longitudinal sides of the bays, are 27 feet by 12. Mangers, 2 feet broad, out of which the cattle eat their food. The passages for carrying the straw from the threshing-floor to feed the cattle, are between two and three feet wide. Each passage has a door; there are four principal posts to each shed, besides the smaller ones, and gutters for conveying the urine to four cisterns, from which it is every day thrown upon dunghills, placed at a convenient distance. From the mangers to the gutters there is a pavement of bricks upon a slope, laid in such a manner as to terminate 6 inches perpendicular above the gutters; which pavement is 6 feet broad from that edge to the manger. The gutters are from I8 to 20 inches broad. There are four sheds for various uses, one at each corner of the threshing-floor. At each end of the barn there are two yards with a shed, to be applied to any purpose wanted: one tor sheep, surrounded with low racks, and the other divided for a horse, or two, loose, if necessary: the other half is for yearling calves, which.thrive better in a farm-yard, than when stalled. These yards are inclosed by wailing, or pales. The main body of the barn rises 14, 16, or 20 feet to the eaves. There are various sheds placed against the walling, as this is the cheapest way of sheltering cattle that has yet been discovered.— Should the number of cattle intended to be kept, be greater than here admitted, a circular shed may be erected fronting the small door of the porch, and the hay-stacks be conveniently disposed near those sheds appropriated for cows, horses, or fat cattle. Corn-st3cks must be built on the opposite side of the barn.

In the year 1797, a model of a barn, upon a new construction, to the Bath Society Mr. Doeson, carpenter, of Norwich, who received a premium for his contrivance. The differ-:he common barn, and that just mentioned, is as follows : - The area of the former, 1475 square feet; 24, 426 cubic feet for corn only ; 702 cubic feet of timber; the latter, according to the model, 1472 square feet, the area ; 30, 900 cubic feet, for corn only; and 4-15 cubic feet of timber. By this calculation it appears, that a barn built according to Mr. Dobson's plan, gains on one in common use, of the same area, 64/4 cubic feet of space, and requires 257 cubic feet less of timber : and as there is nothing in its construction which would increase the price of workmanship, the cost of one on this plan, and another of the common kind, would be as 445 to 702; and the mathematical strength of the former is obvious.

A representation of the model above alluded to, is given in the sixth volume of the Repertory of Arts and Manufactures.

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