Bleeding, a term used to ex-- either a spontaneous, or artificial, discharge of blood : in the former case, it is by medical writers called hemorrhage; in the latter, ve-necection, or blood-letting, of which last we propose to treat in its place. At present, therefore, we shall consider only those evacuations which Nature directs to take place in the system, and frequently for the benefit of the individual.
1. Bleeding at ihe nose generally arises in full sanguine habits, more commonly in young men than women, especially during adolescence. Exposure to the heat of the sun, a hot room, contusions of the head, or acrid substances introduced into the nostrils, are the general causes of this complaint. - On its first attack, all cumbersome clothes and ligatures, especially those about the wrists and neck, ought to be instantly loosened; the patient should be removed to a cooler temperature, and placed in an erect posture; his hands and legs immersed in tepid water, about milk-Warm; and dossils of lint dipped in vinegar, or a strong solution of white vitriol, put up the nostrils. If the bleeding does not abate, or threatens to become more profuse, cold fomentations, either of simple water, or solutions of nitre and sugar of lead, should be repeatedly applied to the forehead and temples, as well as the region of the kidneys and genitals. - One of the most effectual methods of stopping violent bleeding, consists in the unremitted administration of lukewarm, emollient clysters, in such small proportions as may be retained and absorbed by the bowels, while cold fomentations are applied to the abdomen. Meanwhile, the patient should drink lemonade, or water acidulated with a few drops of vitriolic acid, and sweetened with sugar; or if these cannot be had, a mixture of equal parts of vinegar and water may be substituted.
2. Spitting of blood may be owing to an abundance of that fluid, an organic debility of the lungs, or an imperfect structure of the chest. It may also proceed from exertions in blowing wind-instruments, loud-speaking, singing, running, wrestling, and excels in drinking, especially after violent exercise. This alarming complaint is attended with a dry cough, and difficulty of breathing : and if the evacuated blood be thin, frothy, and florid, it indicates a rupture of some pulmonary artery; but if it be thick, and of a darkish colour, while the coughing up is accompanied with pain, the disease is then occasioned by a fall, or other external injury. In either ease, the diet should be cooling and diluent: hence sweet whey, a decoction of marsh - mallows, or barley, vegetables abounding in mucilage, the mildest laxatives, consisting of manna, tamarinds, phosphorated soda, vitriolated tartar, etc. ought to be instantly resorted to. At the same tunc, emollient clysters, bath ing the legs in tepid water, and a suspension of all mental and bodily exertion, are absolutely necessary. Bleeding, cupping, styptic tinctures, fox-glove, and opium, must be submitted to the discretion of the medical practitioner: and we shall here only observe, that a tabic spoonful of fine salt, taken dry, has frequently afforded instant relief.
3. Vomiting of Blood. See Vomiting.
4. Discharge of Blood by the urethra. See Urine.
5. Bloody Flux. See Dysentery.
6. Bleeding Hemorrhoids. See Files.