Dwarf-trees were formerly in great request, but have been much neglected since the introduction of espaliers. The method of propagating dwarf-pears, which have been found to succeed better than any other dwarfs, is as follows : They are to be grafted on a quince-stock, about six inches above the ground ; and, as soon as the bud has sprouted so far as to have four eyes, it is to be stopped, in order that lateral branches may shoot forth. Two years after budding, the trees will be ready to be transplanted to the spot where they are to remain. They should be set at the distance of 25 or 30 feet square, and the intermediate space rnay be sown or planted with cu-O 4 Rnary linary herbs, while the trees are young; but such herbs are not to be placed too near their roots, which would thus be obstructed in their growth. Stakes are next to be driven around the tree, to which the branches of it are to be nailed with list, while young; being trained in an horizontal direction, and no branches being afterwards permitted to intersect each other ; in shortening the roots, the uppermost eye should always be left outwards. The summer and autumn pears thrive most luxuriantly, when planted in this manner, hut the winter pears do not succeed.
Apples are also sometimes cultivated as dwarfs; for which purpose they are generally grafted on paradise stocks. These do not spread their branches so widely as pears, and therefore require to be set only 8 feet apart. Some gardeners also rear dwarf-apricots and plums, which, however, being less hardy than either apples or pears, seldom thrive when set according to this method.