Head, the uppermost or foremost part of the animal body.

As the foundation of many diseases is laid, by taking cold in this part of the frame, we shall offer a few hints relative to its covering. - For new-born children, an easy and moderately warm head-dress is fully sufficient during the first weeks of their existence ; as superfluous ornaments only tend to encumber and to fatigue them. The infant's cap, however, ought not to be narrow, nor tied too closely, lest the head be compressed, the muscles of the ears crippled, and the sense of hearing impair-ed.

It is equally hurtful for children and adults to walk in the sun with the head uncovered, yet our cumbersome black hats, though sanctioned by custom and fashion, are generally too heavy for the hot days of summer ; they ought to be ma-nufactured of lighter materials, and either white, or dyed of some light colour, especially for soldiers, travellers, and persons labouring in the field. Such individuals should wear hats made of oil-cloth, supported by fine wires, or of straw, chips, etc.

In this temperate climate, youth may with safety be accustomed to go with their heads uncovered; but, in those countries where either of the two extremes of heat or cold prevail, the opposite practice must be adopted.

Many diseases, however, might be avoided, were the trite, but true maxim of "keeping the head cool," more strictly attended to. Hence the wearing of thick and warm night-caps, whether at night, or in the day time, cannot be too much reprobated ; as those who indulge in this whimsical habit, render themselves continually liable to take cold from the slightest change in the atmosphere: thus baldness, violent head-achs, and not unfre-quently a lethargic stupor, or insanity, are among the many fatal effects which sooner or later follow this imprudent custom. - See also Hair.