Horn, a hard substance growing on the heads of various animals, particularly on cloven-footed qua-drupeds. - The oil extracted from it, by repeated distillations, becomes extremely subtle and volatile; in which state it is called oil of Dip-pel, being the name of its inventor.
Horns form a considerable article in the arts and manufactures. Those of bullocks, when softened by heat, are converted into lan-thorns, combs, knives, inkborns, etc. After the horn is roasted over a tire made of the stalks of furze, so as to render it sufficiently soft, it is slit on one side, and spread out between a pair of flat tongs, large enough to keep it expanded A second time over the fire, and reduce it to a flat state ; it is then put into a press between iron plates which are heated and greased. Here the horns are suffered to remain till they are gradually cooled ; next they are soaked in water, till soft enough to be pared down to a proper thinness, with a large knife worked horizontally on a block. Thus, they acquire their transparency ; and, after being immersed in urine, they are polished, by rubbing them with whiting and the coal of burnt willow.
The refuse or shavings of horn are of considerable utility as a manure for chalky land, on-which they are strewed in the proportion of fourteen bushels per acre. Their efficacy was not exhausted after a succession of four crops, each of which was remarkably improved. Hence they are advantageously employed on light and gravelly soils, together with hotter manures, preventing the latter from burning the crops ; because horny substances have been observed to attract the dew, and retain moisture.