Kalendar, or Calendar, denotes either the distribution of time, accommodated to the purposes of life; or a table or almanack, comprising the order of days, weeks, months, etc.

There are various systems of chronological computation, according to the different forms of the year, and the division of time adopted in particular countries; suck such as the Julian, Gregorian, and the new French kalendar.

The Julian kalendar received its name from Julius Caesar, the reformer of the old Roman kalendar, and is divided into periods comprising four years; the first three of which are called common, and consist of 365 days; the fourth has received the appellation of bis-sextile, ox leap-year, and contains 366 days, on account of the six hours, which in the space of four years form a day, within a few minutes, and thus, in the course of 134 years, render it necessary to subtract an intercalary day.

For this reason, Pope Grego-Ry XIII. with the advice of able mathematicians, appointed that the hundredth year of each century should have no bissextile, excepting in every fourth century, on account of the deficiency of eleven minutes in the six hours of which a bissextile consists.

This reformation, or the new style, as it is now termed, co menced on the 4th of October, 1582.. when ten days were omitted in the old kalendar; but that change was not introduced into Britain till it was enacted by the 24th Geo. II. c. 23, that the Gregorian computation should be adopted ; and it accordingly took place in the year 1752.

The kalendar at present used by the French, was invented by FABRE d'Eglantine, during the late Revolution. It commences with the autumnal equinox, and is divided into twelve months, each of which contains 30 days, and three decades, or periods of ten days : thus, a decade is a day of rest, similar to our Sunday. To the 12th month, or Fructidor, are added five supernumerary days, called sanculottides: and that the reader may form some idea of the new French kaiendar, we have annexed the following tables, in which the new and old methods of computation are placed in parallel lines ;

Years of the

Republic.

Gregorian Year.

Commencement of the

French Year.

September.

10

1801—02

1801

23

11

1802—03

1802

s.

23

12

1803—04 B.

1803

24

13

1804—05

1S04

B.

23

14

1805—06

1805 1806

S.

23

15

1806—07

23

1, 16

1807—08 B.

1807

24

17

1808—09

1808

B.

23

18

I8O9—10

1809

23

19

1810—11

1810

23

20

1811—12 B.

1811

S.

23

B. Signifies Bisextile, or Leap Year ; - S. Sextile, or French Leap Year.

By means of the next Table, the first day of each Month of the New French Kalendar, is made to correspond with that of the common Kalendar.

or Autumnal

Month.

l. Brumaire, or

Hazy

Month.

1. Frimaire, • or Hoar-frost Month.

l. Nivose, or

Snow

Month.

I. Pluviose, or

Rain

Month.

1. Venlose, or

WindMonth.

22 Septem.

22 October

21 Novem.

21 Decern.

20 January

19 Feb.

23 -------

23 -------

22 -------

22 -------

21 -------

20 -------

24 -------

24 -------

23 -------

23 -------

22 -------

21 -------

1. Germinal, or

Germinating

Month.

1. Floreal, or Flower Month.

l. Prairiat, or

Meadow

Month.

1. Messid or

Harvest

Month.

I. Fbermid or

Hot

Month.

l. Fruetidcr, or

Fruit Month.

21 March*

20 April *

20 May *

19 June *

19 July *

18 Aug.*

22 *

21 *

21 ------ *

20 ------- *

20 ------- *

19-------*

-------- * i

22 ------- *

22 *

21 ------- *

21 ------- *

20-------*

First Intercalary Day.

17

Septem.

*

18

*

19

------------------------

*

* When a Gregorian Leap-year occurs, one day must be subtracted from all those days in the year which are marked with an asterisk.

In the following Table, the first day of each Month of the common Kalendar is arranged according to the first day of the French Kalendar; and it deserves to be remarked, that when a Leap-year occurs, one day must be superadded to each of the following days.

Commencement 0 the year in the foregoing Grego nan year.

1 1 January

1 February

1 March

1 April

22 September

23-------------24--------------

12 Nivose

11 ---------10----------

Pluviose

12---------11 ----------

11 Ventose

10---------9----------

12 Germinal

11 ---------10----------

1 May

1 June

1 July

1 August

12 Floreal

11 ---------10----------

13 Prairial

12---------11 ------------

13 Messidor

12---------11 ----------

14 Thermid.

13---------12----------

1 Septemb.

1 October

1 Novemb.

1 December

|

15 Fructid.

14---------13----------

10 Vendem.

9---------8 ----------

11 Brumaire 10---------9

11 Frimaire 10 ---------9--------

The Monthly Reviewers, in their Journal for March 1797, observe that the new French year appears to astronomers better calculated than our own; because its commencement forms a natural date in both the hemispheres, and its four quarter days coincide very nearly with the solstices and equinoxes. The French months, too, are of equal length; and divided regularly by their decades, without a fraction; by which the remembrance of dates, circumstances, etc. is considerably promoted. In the conclusion of their criticism, however, the Reviewers admit that the names are ill-adapted to the months, which are accommodated only to the climate of Paris : hence they are of opinion that these innovations, as well as those respecting weights and measures, ought to have been reserved for discussion in a congress for general pacification.