Liquor, a general name for any liquid preparation, but more particularly applied to such as are either fermented, or distilled : of the former class are, beer, ale, wine, etc. ;| of the latter, are brandy, gin, rum, and other ardent spirits.

A patent was granted, in 1797, to Mr. Joseph Bramah, for his invention of certain new methods of retaining, clarifying, preserving, and drawing off every kind of liquor; and more particularly porter, ale, etc. together with various improved casks and implements necessary for giving his contrivance full effect.

Our limits will not permit us to specify the different means employed by the ingenious patentee : we shall, therefore, at present, only state the various objects effected by his contrivance.

1. To preserve all liquors, used as beverage, from flatness or acidity, while they are on tap, for any period of time; by which the expensive custom of bottling liquors may be entirely superseded.

2. To render water, and every other fluid perfectly pellucid, and to extricate it completely from all heterogeneous matters, by means of a forced filtration, without the aid of isinglass, or any other chemical preparation, known under the name of finings; and which is usually employed for the purpose of clarification.

3. To convey every kind of liquor through small tubes from the cellar to any part of the house; by which means the cellar-door may be fastened at all times,and thus secured from the injurious access of either cold or heat; while intoxication, adulteration, embezzlement, etc. will be effectually prevented.

Lastly, to secure and draw off liquors, as occasion may require, by means of cocks constructed off a new principle, so that no person can open them, excepting such as have permission to that effect. Thus every person may ascertain, with accuracy, the quantity of beer, ale, etc. consumed.- To publicans, in particular, this invention must be a very great acquisition ; as, beside the frauds committed on them by indolent or dishonest servants, considerable quantities of liquor will be saved, that are otherwise inevitably wasted by careless drawing, etc. The reader who wishes to obtain farther information respecting Mr. Bramah's useful inventions, will find them described in the 9th volume of the Repertory of Arts, etc. where his patent is illustrated with engravings.