Loom, a machine, by means of which several distinct threads are combined into one piece, or contexture.

Looms are of various forms, according to the different materials to be woven ; and the various methods of weaving-As our limits do not permit us to detail them, and as they would be unintelligible, Without the aid of engravings, we shall briefly mention Mr. Samuel Sholl's improved Silk Loom, for which the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, etc in l790, conferred on him a silver medal. His ingenious contrivance is peculiarly calculated for the lighter branches of silk-weaving : by its construction, it admits more light to the workmen, and may be placed in almost any low garret, without breaking the walls; - the perry may be made of any length, by only screwing the cane-roll posts nearer or farther from the breast-roll ; and it is, on the whole, more portable, and fixed with less trouble, than any loom hitherto invented. Another advantage is its cheapness ; the price being one-third less than that of the common looms; beside which, the most valuable parts of the old materials may be still preserved, and adapted to the new machinery.- For a more minute account of Mr. S.'s contrivance, the reader will consult the 8th volume of the Transactions of the patriotic Society above-mentioned.