As we have already, under the head of Dairy-house, treated of the utensils, etc. proper for the management of milk, we shall now lay before our readers a cut, representing a Milk-house, upon an im proved plan, by the industrious Dr. Anderson.
Description of Dr. Anderson's Milk-house, its appurtenances.
The uppermost of the three figures represents a section of the whole structure.
A, the dairy in the centre, surrounded by open passages.
B, the entry to the dairy from the north.
D, the scullery, or wash-house, with the door or entrance from the south, and benches placed beneath.
F, a door, which communicates with the milk-house, etc.
h, the tire-place.
The lowermost of the three figures, is an elevation of the milk-house A.
B B, the passages round it.
c, the interior window.
d, the ventilator or air-pipe.
g, the exterior window.
The smallest of the figures above given, is a delineation of the ventilator.
i, represents the valve at the top.
k, another valve at the bottom, which communicates with the milk-house.
n, a similar valve, with the pas-» sage.
The whole of this structure ought to consist of a range of nar-row buildings, as in the section first delineated, where the middle division marked A, represents the milk-house, properly so called. Dr. Anderson directs it to be built with a double wall, so that a current of air may continually pass, for the purpose of preserving a regular, cool temperature; the inner wall being constructed with lath or bricks, doubly plastered on both sides ; and the outer one, consisting of plastered lath : both being carefully worked, so as to render them perfectly air-tight.
The entrance to the dairy ought to be on the north side B ; but it will be requisite, for greater convenience, to make another communication through the door f, into the front-room, especially dur-ing the winter, when the outer door B, should be kept continually shut. The external roof ought to be constructed with tiles, or slate, while the inner one should be made of plaster, closely applied. Between both, it will be necessary to leave a vacant space, at least four feet wide, for the free passage of air, as delineated in the elevation above given; in which the letter A, represents the inside of the milk-house. The letters B B, designate the area between the two walls, that gradually diminishes towards the top, till it terminates in the ventilator or wooden chimney d; which
Which ought to be constructed, on three sides, with planks or boards lined with plaster; the fourth, or south front, should consist wholly of glass, carefully closed with putty, so as to render it completely air-tight. Its dimensions may vary at pleasure, from one to two feet in diameter, internally ; but it should be elevated at least six or eight feet above the roof; as its effects will be more or less powerful, according to its length.
This tube is furnished at the top with a valve i, placed immediately beneath the air-holes, which may be closed when required; and at the bottom is a similar valve k. The lower pipe, which communicates with the milk-house, is considerably smaller than the upper tube just described. The opening m, is closed on one side; and at n is a valve, which, when shut, prevents any communication between this pipe and the external area.— Farther, the top of the ventilator is covered with boards, placed in the form of a roof, so that the rain may be thrown off, without impeding the current of air; while, by means of the valves above-mentioned, the air, heated by the action of the sun through the outer wall, will immediately escape, thus constantly preserving a due temperature; and, by the same means, all damp and confined air, which is extremely pernicious in dairies, will be constantly expelled.
The building is furnished with a window placed along the slanting interior roof at c, and which is closed down with putty, to prevent it from being opened. Another window, g, is fixed over it in a similar manner on the external roof, so as to transmit the light, without impeding the current of air between the two glasses.
The passage round the milk-house ought to communicate with the external air below, only at the threshold of the door B. But it will be necessary to make a small aperture on every side, about one foot in height from the floor, in order that such area may be occasionally ventilated. Each of these apertures should be secured with a piece of thin wire-work, in order to prevent the approach of insects, or other vermin ; and ought likewise to be furnished with a door, or cover, by which it may be opened, or closed, according to circumstances. Farther, if this passage be furnished with shelves, and lighted by a glazed window from the inner apartment, so as to admit light only, it may be advantageously converted into a pantry for keeping butter, cheese, etc. perfectly cool, independently of its use for preserving the temperature of the milk-room.
The whole of the interior apartment should be finished with hard plaster neatly smoothened, and totally devoid of ornament, so that it may be cleaned as often as becomes necessary. In its centre, Dr. Anderson directs a large stone table to be placed, being about 1\ feet high, 3 feet wide at the least, and of a breadth proportioned to the length of the room. Beneath the table is to be fixed a stone trough, corresponding to the length and breadth of the former, and being about one foot deep, that is, six inches above and below the floor of the milk-house. From the bottom of the trough, a pipe is to be conducted, for the purpose of carrying off die water : and, in case it be supplied by a running stream, it will be requisite to make one side of such trough somewhat lower, that the water may run over, and thus be carried out of the house. The floor of the building should be constructed with stones neatly laid ; and, if these be easily attainable, the shelves, delineated in the elevation above, given, should be hewn out of the same materials : otherwise, they may consist of wooden planks.
If the milk-house be situated near a large town, where ice could be vended during the summer, Dr. Anderson is of opinion, it would be very beneficial to the owner, to erect an ice-house contiguous to this dairy, as represented at the letter C, in the uppermost cut above given. He recommends it to be surrounded by a double wall on three sides, with a passage or area intervening, as in the dairy. The receptacle for the ice ought to be formed of upright posts, lined with wattled-work of wands, or with close rail-work, but so as to leave a walk two feet and a half wide every way ; round which a gutter should be made to carry off such water as may drain from the ice. This is, in his opinion, the cheapest method of building an ice-house, in any situation ; and is far preferable to the usual mode of making vaults, which are not only more liable to be damp, and become mouldy, but are also far more expensive, and by no means so well calculated to preserve a gentle coolness, and an equal temperature, at every season.
The apartment, marked with the letter D, is designed as a repository for the utensils of the dairy, in which they may be cleaned and arranged. For this purpose, it will be advisable to place shelves round the walls, together with tables, and such other articles as may be found necessary. Its entrance should be from the south, where the roof projects about two feet over the wall, as at f, which door communicates immediately with the milk-house, and may be occasionally opened in the summer ; but which alone ought to be used during the winter, when the chief entrance B, should be constantly shut. At one end of this apartment is a fire-place, on which a cauldron, proportioned to the size of the dairy, ought to be fixed ; in order that there may be a continual supply of warm or hot water.
Such is the outline of Dr. Anderson's ingenious plan, which appears to be well calculated to enable attentive dairy-men, ,to keep their milk of an equal temperature at all seasons, while they may, at the same time, carry on the necessary operations with little trouble or expence.—Those of our readers, who wish to become more intimately acquainted with the whole economy of the milk-house, will not without instruction peruse Dr. Anderson's Practical Re-marks on the Management of the Dairy, which were originally published in the 5th vol. of the Letters and Papers of the Bath Society ; but which have been considerably enlarged in the 3d vol. of the new series of his valuable miscellany, entitled Recreations in Agriculture, etc.