Shoulder, is the joint which connects the arm with the body. The principal affection of this limb is LUXATION, or dislocation (see vol.iii.p. 136). when the head of the upper arm-bone is forced from -cket. Such injury may be discovered by the swelling of the part; the inability to raise the arm; and violent pain attending the attempt: farther, the dislocated arm will be of a different length from the other; the head of the bone may be felt to be displaced from its natural situation ; and a vacuity be perceived uNder the anterior part of the shoulder-blade.

In treating this complaint, the principal object will be to reduce the dislocated limb, with the greatest possible ease and expedition; in order to prevent a watery-swelling, which is apt to arise in neglected cases of long standing. Various means have been devised for restoring the joint to its former position; such as suspending the patient by the luxated arm over the step of a ladder, or the top of a door; and which have, in many instances, been attended with success, by the sudden jerk thus produced : but, by either of these expedients, the soft parts are liable to be lacerated, and the head of the bone to-be fractured.

A more eligible method, therefore, is the following: after patient is seated on a chair, his body must be secured by a strong belt passed around it, and held by assistants. The elbow should be bent, in order to relax the muscles. A firm leather bandage, from four to five inches broad, with strong straps, is next to be tied round the arm, immediately above the elbow; when the arm should be gradually extended by assistants, pulling these straps, while another person withdraws the shoulder-blade. The extension and counter-extension must be regulated by the situation of the head of the bone. As soon as the latter has I the margin of the socket, it will be returned to its place by the action of the muscles; an effect which is indicated by a loud crack. If, however, violent inflammatory symptoms should ensue after the operation, recourse must be had to fomentations with Arquebusade or Goulard-water, and the application of leeches. - At all events, the arm ought to be retained for some time in a state of rest, by a proper bandage, till it acquire its former vigour; especially if a new dislocation of the joint be apprehended. To obviate such an accident, blisters, frictions, and stimulants, applied to the shoulders, have frequently proved beneficial.