1. The Coriaria, or Elm-leaved Sumach, a native of Italy, Spain, Syria, Turkey, and Palestine, where it grows to the height of eight or ten feet. The branches of this species, when dried and reduced to powder, are substituted for oak-bark in tanning, particularly Turkey, or Morocco-leather: its leaves are occasionally employed on the Continent in medicine, being reputed to be uncommonly astringent and styptic. Troms-dorf obtained from the reddish, compressed hairy berries of this tree, an essential acid salt, similar to that of lemons, by a strong decoction, and subsequent evaporation ; when small white crystals were formed, on exposing it to a cold place. Both the root and berries produce a reddish, and the rind a yellow colour. In Germany, the clustered fruit of the elm-leaved Sumach is suspended in vinegar, to increase its acidity.
2. The Copallinum, Narrow-leaved, or Beach-Sumach, is a native of North America, where it attains the height of from five to ten feet. The concrete juice of this tree, by incision in the trunk, furnishes the gummy-resinous substance, called Copal.
3. The typhinum, Virginian Sumach, or Vinegar Plant, has long been cultivated in the northern parts of Germany. The whole of this shrub is advantageously employed in tanning : it may also be used in dyeing black, green, and yellow colours : and, when combined with vitriol of iron, it produces a good ink. The ripe berries, if boiled with alum, afford a deep black dye for hats: the Americans dry the leaves, and smoke a as a substitute for tobacco. The yellow-marbled wood is in great request among cabinet-makers. Lastly, bees are uncommonly partial to the flowers of the Virginian Sumach ; as they afford a larger proportion of honey than those of any other vegetable: hence, the culture of this species may be productive of great profit to proprietors of bee-hives.
4. The Cotinus, or Yellow Sumach, a native of Asia, and the southern parts of Europe, is also cultivated in Germany. Its leaves and branches are likewise useful in tanning: the wood and bark yield an orange dye; and the latter, with the addition of Brazil-wood, imparts a chestnut-colour. Gul-denstadt remarks, that the leaves of this species are preferably employed by curriers ; as they do not tinge the skin, excepting with a faint yellow cast; so that the Morocco-leather may subsequently be dyed of the most pleasing shades. Pallas informs us, that the dyers of Astrakhan prepare the genuine Turkey-red on cotton, by a decoction of the leaves of the Yellow Sumach and galls; with a due proportion of alum; having previously soaked the yarn in fish-oil, which we suppose to be that obtained from the sturgeon.
All the species before enumerated, are hardy trees, and will flourish in any open situation, that is not too much expose d : they may be propagated by their seeds in autumn ; when these are to be sown in pots, containing light earth. During the winter, it will be advisable to shelter them beneath a frame; and, on the approach of spring, they should be plunged in hot-beds, to promote their growth. When the young plants appear, they must be gradually exposed to the weather, and afterwards protected in a similar manner, throu out the succeeding winter: in the spring, they ought to be transplanted into nurseries, at the distance of one foot from each other, and in rows three feet apart. Here they should remain for two or three years, till they acquire sufficient strength to be removed to the place of their destination.