for himself, soon adding printing to bookselling. In 1832 he founded Chambers' Edinburgh Journal, the pioneer of a class of cheap and popular periodicals of a wholesome kind, now so general. Together with his brother Robert, he wrote and published many useful books, especially the Cyclopaedia of English Literature and Chambers' Encyclopaedia in ten volumes. He died on May 20, 1883.

Cham'bersburg, Pa., a borough, the seat of Franklin County, on Conococheague Creek and • on the Western Maryland, Philadelphia and Reading, the Cumberland Valley and other railroads, about 50 miles southwest of Harrisburg. It is an attractive town, with many fine buildings, including churches and schools, besides Wilson (Presb.) College for women; and in the neighborhood are Mont Alto, Wolf Lake and Pen-Mar Parks. The city owns and operates its electric-light plant and waterworks, and in addition to the Cumberland Valley Railway car and machine-shops, has manufactures of paper, iron, engines, boilers and milling machinery; also establishments for the manufacture of shoes, furniture, gloves, hosiery, woolen goods and flour. Population (1010), 11,800.

Chambord {shrbr1 ), Henri Charles, Comte de, and Duc de Bordeaux, claimant to the French throne as the last representative of the elder branch of the French Bourbon dynasty, was born at Paris, Sept. 29, 1820, and died near Vienna, Aug. 24, 1883. He was the son of the Duc de Berri, and in 1836 married the Princess of Modena, but left no children In 1830 his grandfather, Charles X, abdicated in the Count of Cham-bord's favor, when he assumed the title of Henri V; but his claim was unrecognized by France, and Louis Philippe came to the throne, while the Count had to go into exile.

Chameleon, a lizard of Africa and Madagascar, with the power of changing its color to correspond with that of surrounding objects. The name properly belongs to the Old World form, though it is now commonly applied to certain small lizards of the southern United States, which have the same power of quickly changing color, though this is not confined to the chameleons. Nearly all lizards have it to a greater or less degree, but it is highly perfected in the chameleon. Even a passing cloud is said to affect the particular shade of its color. The true chameleon of Africa is covered with granular scales and has a rigid head but very movable eyes. The long tongue is worm-like, with a knob on the end, and is run out with remarkable quickness to catch insects. The tail is clinging. It is also capable of puffing out the neck with air. The American chameleon belongs to a different family. It is a smaller animal, covered with minute scales, and very abundant in the southern United

States and the island of Jamaica. Its body is about three to three and one half inches long, and the tail alone is about six inches. It is white below, but above can change rapidly to shades from emerald

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green to dark bronze. It assumes most perfectly the green color, and, on the leaves of palmettoes, can scarcely be seen if looked at from above, but, by looking from underneath, the dark shadow of the animal shows its position. It sleeps during the night and is most active in the daytime, when insects are moving. The cat is its natural enemy, and will leave all othef kinds of food, even fish, for the chameleon. Various explanations have been suggested to account for its ability to change color. The outermost layer of skin is transparent, and underneath are two colored layers— the upper layer lighter and the deeper one darker. Both of these can be changed in intensity by contraction or expansion of the coloring substance. This is probably effected through the nervous system.

Chamois, (sham'm^ or sh-moi' ), a small mountain antelope inhabiting the European Alps from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus. It is about 3 feet long and 2 J feet high at the shoulders. It may be known by the horns, which are carried by both sexes. They are from six to eight inches long, black, slender and round; they rise almost vertically from the forehead, and at the extremities suddenly hook backward and downward. The body is covered with coarse reddish-brown hair, paler on the head, with a dark-brown streak on each side. The hair becomes lighter in the spring. Underneath the hair is a short, thick, grayish wool. The tail is short and black. They are shy and live in herds, always posting a sentinel when feeding. The signal of danger is a whistling sound, accompanied by stamping of the fore feet. Chamois-hunting in Switzerland used to be a favorite but dangerous amusement. The hunter followed the animals into almost inaccessible places and sometimes bared the feet and scratched them enough to cause slight bleeding, in order to prevent slipping on the smooth rocks. Chamois were once common in the Swiss Alps, but