MORE

1261

MOREAU

apostles and early Christians; all distinctions of rank were done away with; they were opposed to taking the oath or giving military se:"vice. The first formation of the church was in 1467 in Bohemia, increasing to between 300 and 400 churches in the beginning of the loth century, when, from persecutions, many fled into Poland and Prussia. In 1600 they numbered two thirds of the Bohemian nation, but were involved in the revolution of that period, and the church was almost destroyed. A few descendants of the old Moravians founded in 1722 a colony at Herrnhut in Saxony on land given by Count Zinzendorf, and in 1727 formed their church anew. Their community was a pattern for other settlements in Germany, .America and Britain, often named for the mother-colony^ of Herrnhut. Count Zinzendorf was one of their first bishops, and had much influence in deciding their customs of worship. They now number about 100,000 followers. The great distinction of the Moravians is their missionary zeal. Their first missions were started as early as 1732 in the West Indies, followed by mission-work in Greenland, Lapland, North and South America and Africa. Their missions among the American Indians were successful, one of their well-known stations being at Gnadenhutten in Ohio among the Tuscarawas. One out of every 50 members of the Moravian church is engaged in mission-work, and there are three times as many members in their mission-churches as in ;the home-churches. The most abandoned, hopeless and miserable people have been the first choice of the Moravian missionaries, as their missions to slaves, lepers, Indians and gypsies testify. The Moravian church in the United States has about 16,500 communicants, 130 ministers and 116 churches. Their great strength is in Pennsylvania. See Missions by Thompson; Hutton's Short History of the Moravian Church; and History by Bost (English translation) .

More (mar), Hannah, was born near Bristol, England, in 1745. She wrote verses when very young, publishing a drama, The Search for Happiness, when only 17. This was followed by two tragedies, Percy and the Fatal Secret, both of which were acted. She gave much of her time to helping the poor and originating schools for them. Macaulay in his childhood was a pet of hers. Her novel, Calebs in Search of a Wife, and the tract, The Shepherd of Salisbury Plain, are the most popular of her works. The tract has had an enormous circulation. She died, at Clifton, Sept. 7, 1833. §ee Life by Roberts and one by Yonge.

More, Sir Thomas, English statesman and author, was born at London in 1478. He acted as page, according to the fashion of the times, in the house of Archbishop

Morton, who said to his guests: "This child waiting at the table will prove a marvelous man." When Henry VIII came to the throne, More was already known as one of the leading scholars of the time, had been in Parliament, and acted as ambassador to the Netherlands, so that Henry naturally gave him public office. He rose rapidly, becoming treasurer of the exchequer, speaker of the house of commons and, on the fall of Wolsey in 1529, lord-chancellor. The king became intimate with him, making unexpected visits at his home at Chelsea, but, when congratulated on the king's friendship, More replied: "If my head would win him a castle in France, it should not fail to go." He was sent on embassies to Francis I and Charles V. As chancellor "he was ready to hear every man's cause, poor and rich," and the only fault found has been with his decisions in religious matters Like Erasmus and Colet, while welcoming reforms, he did not desire to leave the old church. He parted with Henry on the question of the divorce of Catherine of Aragon, and refused to take the oath acknowledging Henry as head of the church. He was beheaded on Tower Hill, London, July 6, 1535. His works were generally written in Latin ; his History of King Richard III, however, in 1513, was written in English, and perhaps is the first example of classical English prose. His great work, Utopia, in Latin, made him the one literary Englishman of the 16th century who was known and admired on the continent. It was translated by Bishop Burnet in 1556, and still holds its place as an English classic. See Life by Roper; and Lives of the Chancellors by Campbell.

Moreau (mo'ro'), Jean Victor, one of the greatest of French generals, was born on Aug. 11, 1761, in Brittany. In the Revolution he served first under Dumouriez, and was soon made commander of a division, taking an active part in reducing Belgium and Holland. In the spring of 1796 he was given the chief command on the Rhine and Moselle, driving the Austrians back to the Danube, and regaining the Rhine in a retreat that gave him more reputation than all his victories. In 1798 he saved the French army in Italy from destruction, when hard pressed by the Russians and Austrians. His command was given to Joubert, but, at his request, Moreau remained with the army and, after Joubert's death, brought the defeated troops to France. He was offered the dictatorship, but declined, giving his help to Bonaparte. Again in command of the army of the Rhine, he gained victory after victory over the Austrians in 1800, ending with the great battle of Hohenlinden. Napoleon, possibly moved by jealousy, accused him of taking part in a plot against his life and