PARMA

1425

PARROT

houses since the time of Queen Anne. The name dates to the 13th century, and the conflicts between the people and the throne, which have gradually increased the powers of Parliament, are the chief theme of English history.

Par'ma, an Italian town, the former capital of the duchy of Parma, lies on the River Parma, 12 J miles from the Po, on the Emilian road. The town is still surrounded by walls and is guarded.by a citadel. Of more than 60 churches the most noted are the cathedral, the baptistry, Madonna della Steccata and St. John the Evangelist. Other notable buildings are the ducal palaces, library, university, music-school and museum. The principal manufactures are pianos, silks, cast-iron goods, woolens, earthenware, paper and soap. A state university, founded in 1502, has its seat here, with 695 students. Population 49,340.

Parnas'sus, a mountain in Phocis, Greece, upon whose highest peak (8,036 feet) occurred the worship of Bacchus. The mountain was the seat of Apollo and the muses, and at its base lay the seat of the oracle of Delphi and the fountain o Castalia.

Par'nell, Charles Stewart, an Irish statesman, was born on June 28, 1846, at Avon-dale, Wicklow County, educated at Yeovil and Cambridge, and in 1874 became high sheriff of his county. In 1875 he entered Parliament for County Meath as a home-ruler, and in 1877-8 became notable as an obstructionist. In 1879 he was elected president of the Irish National Land League, and in 1880 visited the United States, making speeches in behalf of the movement and collecting $350,000 in its aid. Parnell's opposition to the coercion bill caused him to be' ejected from the house of commons, and the passage of the land bill almost deprived him of power. On Oct. 13, 1881, Gladstone put him in Kilmainham jail, where he remained until released through the aid of Captain O'Shea, May 2, 1882. After the Land League was declared illegal, the national league arose from its disruption, and Parnell was elected president and began to manoeuvre to throw his parliamentary strength to the conservative side. Failing in this, he carried 86 votes to the liberals. To a great extent Gladstone's views on home-rule had changed, and this brought Parnell politically close to him, but they together failed to carry the home-rule bill. Thereux on the London Times printed its series of incriminatory articles, which caused the famous trial of 128 days, in which Parnell was cleared. He was now immensely popular and powerful, but the presentation of the freedom of the city of Edinburgh was quickly followed by disgrace on the publication of the application for divorce by Captain O'Shea, in which Parnell was made co-respondent. A decree was entered on Nov. 17, 1S90. Some time after Parnell married Mrs.

O'Shea. He, however, never regained political power, and died at Brighton, England, Oct. 6, 1891. See The Parnell Movement by T. P. O'Connor and England under Gladstone by Justin H. M'Carthy.

Pa'ros, one of the largest islands of the' Greek Archipelago, in the Cyclades division, is of pyramidal shape, and has an area of about 64 square miles and a population of nearly 7,000, of whom its capital, Parikia, contains 2,300. Its exports are wine, wool and figs, and the quarries of celebrated Parian marble near the top of Mt. St. Elias are still worked.

Parrhasius (ŷăr-rā'sh´-ŭs), a great painter of ancient Greece, lived in Athens, as early as the 4th century B. C. He excelled in design, accuracy, force and expression, and was said to be as vain and proud as he was talented.

Par'rish, Maxfield, an American artist, was born at Philadelphia in 1870. As an illustrator, he is known by magazine covers and posters. He designs in elaborately detailed ground or background, flat tints and strong but delicate outline. His illustra-, tions to Mother Goose in Prose were signally successful.

Par'rot, a tropical bird, with short, hooked bill, thick fleshy tongue and usually brilliant plumage, the foot distinguished by the first and fourth toes pointing backward and the second and third forward. The family is a large one, embracing over five hundred species. It includes macaws, cockatoos, true parrots and parrakeets. Parrots live usually in flocks, either in forests or on grassy plains. Their food is mainly vegetable, consisting of fruits, seeds, buds, leaves and flowers. In South America are found the greatest number of species; in Europe there are none, but one species exists in the United States. There are only a few in Asia and Africa; some very curious ones occur in New Zealand and Australia. In New Zealand is found the kea, a bird able to kill a sheep. Its feet are large and strong. The macaws, found only in South America, are the largest parrots, brilliantly colored and conspicuous objects in the tropical forests in which they dwell. But, though the feathers are so fine, parrots' voices are anything but fine. They are sometimes taught a few words, and are sometimes kept as pets, in spite of their persistence in screaming and their vicious habit of biting. Cockatoos as a rule are snow-white and wear striking crests. They are found in the Philippines, the Celebes, Australia and the Malay Archipelago. These birds make most satisfactory pets, being of kindly disposition and taking readily^ to training and speech. Parrakeets are dainty in size and form; unlike most members of the order, they have long, pointed tails. The Carolina parrakeet is found in this country; once it had an extended range here,