ST. LOUIS v .                                  1660                       ST. MARK'S CATHEDRAL

value of manufactured products being $267,-307,038. If the factories of East St. Louis and other outlying cities, which properly belong to this industrial center, were added, the aggregate would be greatly increased. The trade in dry goods amounts to I120,-000-000 annually; the manufacture and sale of boots and shoes amount to $50,000,000; that of tobacco and cigars over $40,000,000; beer $18,000,000; and street-cars $15,000,-000. Other lines are flour, glass, furniture, agricultural implements, iron and steel products, white lead, linseed and cottonseed oil, brick, slaughtering and packing. St. Louis boasts of the largest hardware company and the largest woodenware company in the world.

Streets and Sewers. Owing to the elevation of the city, perfect drainage is easily accomplished. There are 550 miles of sewers, 450 of paved streets and 350 of electric railway. The streets are numbered north and south from Market Street, which runs west from the river. The city is supplied with water from the Mississippi River, the waterworks having a capacity of 120,000,000 gallons daily. The income from the water-rates is used in the water-department only; and, as this produces a large revenue, plans are being made to filter the entire supply of city water and also to remove by legislation the evil of the Chicago sewerage.

Buildings. Among the notable public buildings are the court-house, built in the form of a Greek cross and having a dome almost 200 feet high; the city-hall, which cost more than $2,000,000; and the Federal building, which contains the custom-house, postoffice and United States subtreasury. Besides these, there are the Union Trust, the Equitable, the Merchants' Exchange and the United States arsenal and, among the hotels, the Planters', the Southern, the Linden and the Jefferson. St. Louis has many beautiful churches, among them being the cathedral (R. C), Rock Church (R. C), St. George's (Episcopal), Shaare Emith Synagogue, Union Methodist Church and many others.

Parks. The public squares and parks occupy 2,198 acres, the four large parks being Forest, O'Fallon, Carondelet and Tower Grove and Shaw's Garden. This latter park is, properly, the Missouri Botanical Garden and was the gift of Henry Shaw. The ownership of the botanical garden is vested in a board of trustees which has the net income from four million dollars at its disposal, which enables it to extend and improve the garden constantly.

Education. St. Louis spends about $3,500,-000 a year on its public schools, which are attended by 87,074 pupils. There are three high schools and a normal school accommodating 300 pupils; also a colored high and normal school for 300 pupils; in all, there are 91 schools, 12 of which are for colored pupils. The evening schools enroll 3,353 and

the city employs 1,790 teachers (1903). Washington University is a most generously endowed and handsomely equipped institution. Samuel Cupples and Robert S. Brookings, owners and builders of Cupples Station, have given the entire property to Washington University as a permanent endowment for the cause of higher education. It has 249 professors and 1,075 pupils. By the terms of its charter it is nonsectarian and nonpartisan. At various times it has' added and now maintains the departments of law, engineering, architecture, medicine, dentistry and a school and museum of fine arts. St. Louis University (R. C.) dates back to 1829 and is a flourishing institution, with 220 professors and 1268students. Its library of 38,000 volumes is rich in ancient books of many languages. There also are the Christian Brothers school for boys, Forest Park University for girls, the convent of the Assumption and Mary Institute for girls and Smith Academy and the manual-training school for boys. St. Louis has the free public library, the Carnegie central library and branches and the Mercantile library.

History. In 17 64 a company of merchants headed by Pierre Ligueste Laclede, who had been given by the director-general of Louisiana the right to trade with the Indians on the Missouri, made a settlement at St. Louis. It was taken possession of by Spanish troops in 1768 and with the rest of Louisiana became a part of the United States in 1803. In 1780 it was attacked by a large body of Indians, who were driven off. For many years it was only a trading post for fur-traders. The first newspaper was started in 1808; and a year later St. Louis became a town. The city suffered from cholera in 1832 and from cholera and fire in 1849. In 1896 St. Louis was visited by a cyclone which swept through the heart of the city, causing great loss of life and destroying property to the value of over $25,000,000. Population 687,029.

St. Louis, capital of the French colony of Senegal in West Africa, is on a small island near the mouth of Senegal River. Bridges join it to suburbs on either bank. A sandbar makes the river-mouth dangerous to vessels, and freight is landed at Dakar on Cape Verd, 100 miles southwest, and brought to St. Louis by rail. Still, the place has a trade of $5,000,000 a year, its chief exports being gums and earth-nuts. The climate is unhealthy ; water is brought to the town by an aqueduct seven and one half miles long. Population .24,070. See French West Africa and Senegal.

St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, dates from the ninth century, although until 1807 it officially was only the chapel of the Doge's palace. It grew in splendor, however, with the growth of the power and pomp of Venice. Its oriental cupolas and spires were gradually erected; and the interior was beautified by