SCHLEGEL

1689

SCHMALKALD

the name of Dr. Ritter. For a time he I was dramatist to the theater in Mannheim j and published a theatrical journal in which appeared many of his best poems and a part of Don Carlos, finished later at Dresden He kept up his philosophical and historical studies, and in 1788 was given a professorship at Jena and a pension by the duke of Saxe-Weimar which enabled him to marry. His historical works of this period are the Revolt of the Netherlands and the Thirtv Years' War. [n 1794 began Schiller's friendship with Goethe, and under the stimulus of his intercourse with him he again began to write poetry, especially his ballads that have made him the people's poet. His drama of Wallenstein, written when every hour's writing cost hours of suffering, was finished in 1799. Carlyle calls it "the greatest dramatic work of the 18th century." Settling at Weimar in 1799, to be near Goethe, he wrote Mary Stuart, The Maid of Orleans, The Bride of Messina and William Tell, his last finished work. He died, while still young and in his intellectual prime, on May 9, 1805. See Life by Carlyle; Life by Nevinson in the Great Writers Series; and translations of Wallenstein's Death and Piccolomini by Coleridge.

Schlegel (shlâ'gel), August Wilhelm, a German critic and poet, was born at Hannover, Sept. 8, 1767. He studied theology at Göttingen, but soon turned to literature, writing poems and other articles for magazines. He was made professor of literature and fine arts at the University of Jena, and lectured at Berlin on the same subjects and at Vienna in 1808. In 1818 he became professor at Bonn. He translated into German verse most of the works of Shakespeare and many of those of Cervantes, Dante, Calderon and Camoens. His translation of Shakespeare, revised by Tieck, is still the classic German version. His critical writings and his lectures were published in three collections. He died at Bonn, May 12, 1845.

Schlegel, Friedrich von, German critic and writer, was born at Hannover, March 10, 1772. He studied at Göttingen and Leipsic, and then began a literary life. He edited with 1rs brother The Athenœum, and also, in conn°cti. a with him, wrote a series of critical essays, which gave an impulse to good work in German literature. His best-known works are Philosophy of History and History of Literature, two series of lectures delivered at Vienna. His book on The Language and Wisdom of India was a pioneer in the study of Sanskrit in Europe. His works are collected in 15 volumes. He died at Dresden, Jan. n, 1829.

Schleiermacher ( shlî'êr-ma'kër ), Fried-rich Ernst Daniel, a great German theologian, was born at Breslau, Prussia, Nov. 21, 1768. He studied at the Moravian

schools and afterwards at Halle. While preaching at Berlin, he published the first of the works which made him known to the learned world. In 1804 he became a professor at Halle. After that university was closed in 1806 by Napoleon, he returned to Berlin and was active in founding the University of Berlin, in which he became a professor in 1810 His lectures on philosophy and theology brought crowds of students and his sermons increased his influence. His writings also continued, and besides many theological works, which placed him next to Luther as a theologian, his friends after his death published several volumes from his manuscripts. He died on Feb. 12, 1834. See Lichtenberger's History of German Theology in the Nineteenth Century and Schleiermacher's own Autobiography.

Schley (sli), Winfield Scott, rear-admiral in the United States navy, was born near Frederick, Md., Oct. 9, 1839. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1860, and served during the Civil War. He was in command of the Greely relief expedition which sailed in 1884. As commodore he was placed in command of the flying squadron in the war with Spain, and for conspicuous service in the battle of Santiago (July 3, 1898) he was made rear-admiral. In the autumn of 1901 Admiral Schley figured in a court of inquiry arising out of professional controversies between himself and Admiral Sampson respecting the share of honors each was entitled to in the destruction of the Spanish fleet.

Schliemann (shlë'man), Heinrich, a German scholar, born at Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Jan. ŏ, 1822. While in business in St. Petersburg he mastered Greek and the modern languages of Europe. Becoming convinced that the heaps of Hissarlik in Asia Minor covered the site of ancient Troy, when he possessed an independent fortune, he began in 1870 to excavate it at his own cost, carrying on the work for twelve years. He had to pay the Turkish government $10,000 for carrying off all the treasures he unearthed contrary to agreement. His collection is now in the Ethnological Museum at Berlin. In 1876 Schliemann began excavations on the site of the ancient city of Mycenae in Greece, and the treasures found there are now preserved at Athens. He wrote an account of his work in Mycenæ and Tiryns, Ilios, Troja (Troy) and other volumes. He died at Naples, Dec. 27, 1890, and was buried at Athens.

Schmalkald {shmal'kalt), League of, an alliance formed at Schmalkalden, a town in Hesse-Nassau, Germany, April 4, 1531, be-

Description images/pp0594 1

WINFIELDS. SCHLEY