This page of the book is from "The New Student's Reference Work: Volume 3" by Chandler B. Beach, Frank Morton McMurry and others.
sight and hearing, contagious diseases, adenoid growths, causes of malnutrition. In some schools even the teeth of the children are periodically examined by a dentist, who gives free individual advice regarding their care.
As to heating and ventilation, in general that system will be the best which will in the simplest way possible effect an even heat throughout, with sufficient change of air and avoidance of direct draughts upon the pupils. Fire-places are very desirable whenever architectural conditions will permit them. When in use, they insure the best of ventilation and are excellent for furnishing the small amount of heat often required in spring and fall. If a stove is used for heating purposes, it should be surrounded >by a zinc jacket extending from the bottom to a distance of several feet above it, to prevent direct radiation. Air is heated at the bottom and rises to the top of the jacket and thus a fair degree of circulation is insured. The chimney should be large and bisected vertically, half being used for the escape of smoke and the other half for the escape of foul air. In large buildings a force-fan is necessary to insure continuous circulation. This can be provided at small cost. Good ventilation demands 2,000 cubic feet of pure air per pupil per hour. Teachers should assure themselves from time to time as to whether the ventilation system is working, by seeing whether there is sufficient draught up the foul-air flue to draw in a small scrap of paper. For large buildings heating by steam-pipes is preferable to that by hot air, as with hot air it is difficult to have the heat evenly distributed on windy days.
The essential thing in lighting a schoolroom is to secure sufficient light without having it fall directly upon the eyes of the pupils or teacher. For this reason it is best to have all the light come from one side of the room, preferably from the left.
Such good school-desks are now manufactured that there is no excuse for the failure to have pupils hygienically seated at desks adapted to their size.
Teachers should always be on the alert for the detection of any physical defects in their pupils, and these when noticed should be reported at once to the proper persons. Every school should be examined from time to time by a physician with reference to the physical defects of the children.
SchooUShips are used to train officers and gunners for the naval service. In the United States seamen-gunners are trained at Newport and gun-captains on training-ships at Port Royal, S. C. The old English battleships Britannia and Hindustan at Portsmouth, England, are used as school-ships. School-ships are sometimes employed as reformatories, but even in this case they graduate most of their pupils into the navy.
School-Song, The. Since the rote-song in music, like the story in literature, proves to be the "Open! sesame" of interest to the child, a careful selection of such songs should be made for their initial educational value. The following examples serve to illustrate the uses of song in meeting the problems of music-training for school-grades. The work is divided into three periods: Imitative and Dramatic Period; Investigative Period; and Constructive Period, the different steps showing the development of the subject.
IMITATIVE AND DRAMATIC PERIOD.
In the popular musical pleasantry, The Chicken, by Neidlinger the entire spirit of the words is carried over into the music, which naturally represents their meaning in pitch and vocal inflection :
I think when a little chicken drinks
He takes the water in his bill
And then he holds his head way up
So the water can run down hill.
Much to the delight of the little child the water musically "runs down hill" through the descending scale-passage, while the entire song blends speech and song.
The Call of the Crow is a charming bit of musical imaginery by Mrs. Knowlton. To a melodious accompaniment is given the simple call of the crow on two notes for the middle voice, which may be realistically interpreted by the children at first. Later the caw suggests a natural vocal lesson, opening and relaxing the throat as adequately as would an Italian exercise. In the two chanting phrases which follow, speech and song are blended: Over the standing corn The cheery cry is borne. Such words as "corn" and "borne" suggest vocal emphasis upon round, open tones. A change of mood is shown at the close in an accompanying note of regret to the words :
How I wish I could go with him,
Where the woods are wild and dim. The entire song is made on five notes of the scale and, while naturally told, is thoroughly musical and poetic.
The familiar Mother-Goose rime set to music by L. Orth:
Blow, wind, blow; go, mill, go, That the miller may grind his con_. That the baker may take it And into rolls make it And fetch us some hot in the morn. Blow, wind, gives contrasting movements, slow and fast; broad, full vowels of the first phase, short, quick vowels and rapid enunciation in the second part. The words and increased tempo suggest action, the turning of wheels, grinding, kneading and baking. The whole song is an action story which the children will take pleasure in repre-