Against all these facts stands out prominently the circumstance that the procreation of children is, from the standpoint of morality as well as that of patriotism, the main object of marriage; and that maternal happiness is, under anything like normal conditions, the highest and most ennobling sentiment of woman. For this reason conjugal pregnancy ought never to be renounced willingly on account of the disadvantages and dangers mentioned above.

Therefore there remains the necessity for every woman to observe -for the amelioration of the injurious accompaniments of pregnancy-a rational hygiene. What this hygiene dictates is clear from what I have written above. In the first instance, it is evident that a marriage which depends on constant physical employment on the part of the wife is wrong in principle. There is every justification for any and all legislation which seeks to restrict the employment of pregnant women in certain trades, and the idea of a pregnancy insurance which shall enable such women to receive during their pregnancy amounts corresponding to their loss of wages deserves every encouragement. It would be highly desirable that such amounts should include also stated sums, for the purpose of providing the pregnant woman with some domestic assistance, so that she should be spared hard work where she is in the habit of doing it under normal conditions. There is also great necessity to protect pregnant women against infection and against the vicissitudes of the weather. Where there is a predisposition to certain diseases-especially affections of the kidneys, lungs, heart or the nervous system-a suitable prophylaxis must be instituted; and where symptoms of these diseases have already made their appearance the - required treatment must be undertaken with particular care, or pregnancy interrupted if the necessity arises.

(As to what "necessity" means in this connection, there is no unanimity of opinion. The Catholic church has condemned artificial abortion under all circumstances, even where it is the only means of saving the mother's life. Most doctors, however, consider it permissible, or even indicated, as a life-saving remedy.)

With regard to the hygiene of the mind, it is principally the husband who must attend to it. Good-natured passive resistance to the presence of outbreaks of ill-temper on the part of the pregnant wife: reasonable personal attention to the wants of the household and family, where everything suffers in consequence of ill-management: avoidance of all psychical irritation and mental over-exertion through quarrels, exciting literature, heated discussions, too much theatre going, concerts, big parties (especially at the pregnant woman's house), irregular meals and late hours-all these points are of the greatest importance. It is also worth remembering that, in some women, melancholia arouses from a feeling of shame at the ungainly physical alteration in the figure, and that an aggravation will naturally be caused by any apparent neglect on the part of the husband. In such cases the husband must continue to observe former relations most carefully, and affect a certain tender and chivalrous conduct towards the pregnant wife.

As to the utility or injuriousness of sexual intercourse during pregnancy we have discussed this in other articles and I need say only that, where conditions are normal, it is not only injurious but often very advisable. It must of course be abstained from where there is a tendency to miscarriages, or towards the end of the pregnancy when there is a risk of premature labor being brought on. All violence must be avoided, and a different posture may be desirable or necessary. In view of the., possible disagreeable effects resulting from a too long enforced abstinence, it is better to insist upon such abstinence only when it is absolutely imperative.

And now we come to the question of birth. There is no question that, if not in regard to its causation, at least in that of its course, normal though it be, the lying-in period lias the character of disease in its state of convalescence, and that it should be treated as such. Those to whom a separate room at some establishment is a luxury which: they cannot afford (especially as it is never possible to foretell with any degree of certainty the exact date of the confinement) and who yet dislike associating with other women of perhaps a different stamp of respectability, can hardly be expected to prefer the greater comfort if it cannot be obtained otherwise than by a certain amount of loss of self-respect. There is, besides, the separation from the dear ones at home for a period of time more or less uncertain, to which only a few can make up their minds.

It is the duty of the husband whose wife has been confined to see that, in addition to the physical comforts necessitated by the situation, she should also receive careful attention so far as the condition of her mind is concerned, and that all worries and troubles should be kept from her.

In considering, finally, the act of lactation (production of milk for nursing) we find in it also phenomena which are to a certain extent characteristic of disease. The secretion of the breasts withdraws from the body a considerable amount of nourishment, and sometimes a part of its reserve material, so that it becomes less capable of performing its functions. It also becomes more susceptible to certain diseases, and less resistive against pulmonary tuberculosis in particular. Lactation often produces a tendency to be temporarily sterile - but this is not absolutely so in all cases. Painful tension in the bi-easts compels frequent application of the child-about every three hours-or relief by other means; the mother is thus tied to her child, she cannot leave her home for long without it, and is thus incapable of seeking either work or amusement outside. Frequently a perma nent loss of beauty is also feared, and not without reason; for the tense virginal breast, with its small nipples, often remains flaccid after lactation, and the nipples become considerably larger. It is worth mentioning that lactation causes contractions in the womb, and that it is of great assistance in effecting a return of this organ to its normal condition.

Lactation is one of the conjugal duties which ought never to be neglected for the sake of retention of external beauty, or from considerations of amusement. Only when the health of the mother or the child suffers (that is, where it exhausts the former or does not sufficiently nourish the latter) lactation is to be avoided. On the other hand, it is a dereliction of conjugal duties to prolong lactation beyond the proper term, to the detriment of the suckling, for no other purpose than the hope of avoiding a subsequent pregnancy. It is. generally about the ninth or tenth month in the life of the child that the latter begins to require more food than is contained in the mother's milk. From that time onwards it should therefore be given other nourishment, but its occasional application to the breast, in addition, is not contra-indicated, provided there are no conditions of ill-health present in the mother-Health and Strength.