...The efforts of theological seminaries, schools of philanthropy, schools of business, and schools of education to employ sociological theory as an instrument for the analysis of any kind of social situation, or as a master-key to all of their treasure houses, are destined, I still believe, to result in success. Such success awaits standardization, and that - again expressing merely my own opinion - the university professors will yet give us; they - some of them - will come to the aid of the schools that educate social workers and will trim down the far-ramifying sociological theory to the shape of a tool which these workers can be easily trained to use....

In my class every student works on some group or institution with which he is familiar - his practice class, if he has one, or his boarding club, literary society, church, family, neighborhood. As we advance through the principles of sociology he applies them to his own special group and writes a sociological analysis of it by instalments. In this way sociological theory comes to him as an instrument for practical use rather than as a body of doctrine for the delectation of scholars. - American Sociological Society, Publications, Vol. 13, p. 68; Clow, "Sociology in the Education of Teachers."

While the general application of sociology to technical uses must probably await the appearance of a treatise such as is foreshadowed in the first paragraph above, this volume is designed to serve as a textbook for work such as is described in the second paragraph. To that end it omits several topics which usually find place in an introductory textbook in sociology.

The only limit to the student's freedom in selecting the group or organization on which he will use the sociological scalpel is that it must be one about which he has, or can get, adequate information. If it is one in which he is keenly interested, or concerning which he has already done some work, so much the better. It may be a small school, or a department of a large school; it may be a village, or a rural neighborhood, or a ward of a city; it may be a business establishment, or a factory; it may be some historical movement in government, religion, art, or war, provided it was persistent and developed a definite organization. The teacher who wishes to carry the problem method to the limit may set his students at work on their topics before sending them to this or any other book on sociology.

The series of chapters, in respect to selection and order, is the result of much thought and many experiments. No claim is made that it is perfect or that it should be followed without variation in analyzing a social situation; the use, for instance, which the last four chapters make of the first ten exhibits much elasticity. The teacher or student who, after familiarizing himself with the plan of this book, wishes to modify it, has the author's encouragement to the test of a trial.

The "Topics" at the close of each chapter are designed to be assigned to individual students for special study, and perhaps for report to the class. The "Problems" are for discussion, a reference, when given, being merely to serve as a cue to the discussion; in some cases no definite answer is possible, the purpose being to show the limitations of our knowledge or to state some ever present problem. The "References" are intended to lead the student into the literature of sociology and the social phases of education, but of course only a small proportion of the usable books and articles in these two great fields could find mention. The preferred references are marked with asterisks (*); those marked with two asterisks (**) are suitable for required reading.

The illustrative examples have been taken as far as possible from school life and those features of community activity into which teachers need to have some insight. They are given largely in the form of quotations printed in smaller type. Where no reference is given the quotation is usually a contribution from some personal friend of the author.

The quotations and references, however, indicate only a part of the author's indebtedness. The ideas expressed in the larger type have been more or less commonplace among persons who have kept in touch with the progress of science. The author's work has been to serve as a purveyor of the ideas of others, to select what seems to be the best thought of the time in regard to the principles underlying all social organization and education in particular, and to arrange the material so as best to introduce students to this way of thinking. For this unidentifiable material the author is indebted chiefly to his pupils, instructors, colleagues in instruction, and fellow students in classes in the following educational institutions: the high schools at Austin, Minn., and Osh-kosh, Wis.; Carleton College, Northfield, Minn.; Harvard University, the University of Chicago, and the state universities of Wisconsin, Michigan, and Minnesota; the state normal schools of Wisconsin and the four adjoining states, and the school at Oshkosh most of all.

Permission to use the longer quoted passages has been sought from both authors and publishers. The authors, without exception so far as they have expressed themselves, have given permission freely and cheerfully to this method of propagating their ideas. The publishers, who must consider the pecuniary interests of their authors as well as of themselves, have been more particular, especially in regard to the amount to be quoted and the manner in which credit is given. But they have all, with one exception, permitted the free use of the selections from their respective publications.

The largest obligations for the use of such borrowed material are due to the University of Chicago Press for the many, and often lengthy, quotations from The American Journal of Sociology; also for the quotations from the Publications of the American Sociological Society and from General Sociology, by Albion W. Small.

A close rival in this respect is The Macmillan Company, with whose permission the quotations from the following books are taken: The Educative Process and School Discipline, by W. C. Bagley; Social and Ethical Interpretations, by J. Mark Baldwin; Democracy and Education, by John Dewey; The Social Problem, by Charles A. Ellwood; Principles of Sociology, by Franklin H. Giddings; The Kallikak Family, by Henry H. Goddard; Societal Evolution, by Albert G. Keller; The Psychology of Peoples, by Gustave Le Bon; Play in Education, by Joseph Lee; Economic Cycles, by H. L. Moore; Human Behavior, by Maurice Parmelee; The Foundations of Sociology and Social Control, by Edward A. Ross; How to Teach, by Strayer and Norsworthy; Educational Administration, by Strayer and Thorndike; Education, by Edward L. Thorndike; Politics, by Heinrich von Treitschke; The Great Society, by Graham Wallas; Outlines of Sociology and Pure Sociology, by Lester F. Ward; Mr. Britling Sees It Through, by H. G. Wells; The New Democracy, by Walter E. Weyl; and The Virginian, by Owen Wister.

Charles Scribner's Sons have accorded the right to use the selections from Madison Grant's The Passing of the Great Race, Charles H. Johnston's The Modern High School, Henry Fairfield Osborn's Men of the Old Stone Age, George Santa-yana's The Life of Reason, and Charles Horton Cooley's three volumes, Human Nature and the Social Order, Social Organization, and Social Process.

The extracts from the works of Ellwood P. Cubberley, Havelock Ellis, George Harris, James K. Hosmer, Ellsworth Huntington (only The Pulse of Asia and Palestine and Its Transformations), C. A. McMurry, M. V. O'shea, G. T. W.

Patrick, William R. Smith, and Graham Wallas (only Human Nature in Politics) are used by permission of, and by special arrangement with, Houghton Mifflin Company, the authorized publishers.

The extracts from Bagehot's Physics and Politics, Hall's Adolescence, Hayes's Introduction to the Study of Sociology, Jastrow's Character and Temperament, Jordan and Kellogg's Evolution and Animal Life, Kelsey's Physical Basis of Society, King's Education for Social Efficiency, and the writings of Herbert Spencer are used by permission of, and special arrangement with, D. Appleton & Company, the authorized publishers.

Ginn and Company have granted permission to use the material taken from Bullock's Readings in Economics, Calender's Economic History of the United States, Hayes's British Social Politics, Judd's Psychology of High School Subjects, Scott's Social Education, Sumner's Folkways, and Ward's Psychic Factors of Civilization.

The passages from Morgan's Ancient Society, Semple's Influence of Geographic Environment, and James's Principles of Psychology are used with full permission of Henry Holt and Company, the publishers.

The quotations from Democracy and Reaction, by L. T. Hobhouse, and Bushido: The Soul of Japan, by Inazo Ota Nitobe, are with permission of G. P. Putnam's Sons, the publishers.

The selections from Frank M. McMurry's Elementary School Standards, copyright, 1913, and from E. C. Elliott's City School Supervision, copyright, 1914, are used with permission of the publishers, the World Book Company, Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York.

Huntington's Civilization and Climate and Hadley's Freedom and Responsibility are quoted from with permission of the publishers, the Yale University Press.

Princeton University Press gives permission for the use of the two selections from Conklin's Heredity and Environment.

The University of Southern California gives permission for the use of the extracts from Essentials of Social Psychology and Introduction to Sociology, Emory S. Bogardus.

Longmans, Green & Co. authorize the quotations from The School and Other Educators, by John Clarke, and from Civilization and Progress, by J. B. Crozier.

The selection on page 179, from The Wayward Child, by Hannah Kent Schoff, copyright, 1915, is used by special permission of the publishers, The Bobbs-Merrill Company.

Still other publishers will be found mentioned, in accordance with their wish, in connection with the quotations from their respective books.

Harper & Brothers ask for no other credit for the quoting privilege than the regular bibliographical mention in the Author Index.

The same is true of the publishers of the following periodicals and newspapers: The Publications of the American Economic Association, The American Magazine, The Educational Review, The Evening Post (N. Y.), Extension, The Independent, The Journal of Educational Psychology, The Ladies1 Home Journal, The New York Times, The Outlook, The Psychological Review, School and Home Education, The Survey, and The Western Teacher.