Figs. 9, 10, and 11, a, b (pages 77-81), Chart V. (page 82), introduce us to men prominent in another branch of athletics. In each case the weight falls near the ninety-five per cent class, though the height varies considerably. In all of the tracings, however, it will be noticed that the relative position occupied by the body and limbs on the chart has changed. In the figures previously considered, length of limb predominated; here the body, as shown by the sitting height, is longer proportionally than either the arms or legs.

In one case the height of knee is relatively less than the length of thigh, as shown by the height of the pubic arch; in the other cases the length of the lower leg is relatively in excess of the upper. Here all the bone and muscle measurements are large and massive, the girth of head in one case being above the ninety-five, and in another at the eighty-five per cent class, while the girth of the bones of the legs and arms are nearly in the same class as the muscles that act upon them. In each case the girth of the chest reaches the ninety-seven and one-half per cent class, and in two cases the depth of the chest corresponds. In all there is a slight falling off in the girth of the waist. This is due to the fact that the greater number of those who make up the measurements of the classes in this part of the chart owe their extensive girth more to fat than to muscle. In comparison with the athletic class the falling off is not so perceptible; and it will be noticed in these cases that the breadth of waist is larger proportionally than the depth. In two of this group the arms are relatively short, and in each of the group the upper arm is proportionally shorter than the forearm. The lung-capacity in one case is very good, reaching the ninety-five per cent class; but in the other cases, though above the mean, it is not large enough to support the fine muscular devel-opment represented. In Fig. 11,a and b, the

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 35

Figure 10.

Figure 10. - W------, Yale, '89; age, 23 years, 4 months; weight, 167 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 8.9 inches. Played right guard on Yale's foot-ball eleven for '87, and rowed on the Yale University crew for two years.

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Figure 11, a.

Figure 11, a and b. - G------, Yale; age, 19 years, 4 months; weight, 164 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 6.9 inches. Played in the rush-line of Yale's foot-ball team, and has rowed two years on the University crew.

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Figure 11, b. (See description, page 80.)

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Figs, 11...................

Chart V.t plotted from Figs. 9, 10, and 11.

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Figs. 12 and 13. (See description, page 85.) muscle measurements are large for the age, and consequently threaten to exceed the vital resources. The showing of muscular strength, so far as the tests could he taken, is excellent.

The striking characteristics of the three figures are the long body, short thigh, large bones, full chest, short upper arm, good lung-capacity, and fine muscular development throughout the whole physique. What better illustration could be furnished of the perfect harmony between the form of the muscles and the character of their functions? Here we find the large transverse development of arms and thighs, indicating great strength and short range of action; and the expansive chest and long body, indicating great vital power and extensive range of muscle-movement.

Let us consider, briefly, the branches of athletics which these three men represent, and see the connection between their peculiar development and the sports they are familiar with. Each has played in the rush-line of a foot-ball team, and has been a member of a university boat-crew. Of all athletic sports, foot-ball is the best game to test a man physically. In the pushing and hauling, the jostling, trampling struggle for supremacy, few muscles of the body are inactive. The legs are almost constantly in motion, and the arms, chest, abdomen, and back get their share of activity; the lameness and soreness in these regions of the body after a fierce contest is due as often to great muscular effort as to collision with opposing rushers. In spite of the accidents attending this game, as at present played, no sport affords better opportunity for vigorous training. Though rowing contributes largely to the development of the back and legs, and slightly to the arms and chest, to the gymnasium and foot-ball training we must attribute much of the superb muscular development of the men just considered.

Figure 12. - G------, Harvard, '88; age, 22 years, 10 months; weight, 169 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 7.7 inches. Has the Harvard leg and back lift records of 520 kilos (1146.6 pounds) for the legs, and 370 kilos (815.8 pounds) for the back; he is a hammer-thrower and broad-jumper, and has had four years' general exercise in gymnasium and field sports; is third strongest man at Harvard, having a total strength record of 1139.7.

Figure 13. - H------, Harvard, '88; age, 19 years, 10 months; weight, 150 lbs.; height, 5 feet, 4.3 inches. Is the type of a middle-weight wrestler, had three years' practice in general athletics, has a total strength of 1060.3.

Physical Characteristics Of The Athlete 40