This section is from the book "A Scientific And Practical Treatise On American Football For Schools And Colleges", by A. Alonzo Stagg, Henry L. Williams. Don't miss: The Blind Side: Evolution of a Game.
(Copyrighted and printed by permission of A. G. Spaulding & Bros.)
(a) A drop-kick is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it at the very instant it rises.
(b) A place-kick is made by kicking the ball after it has been placed on the ground.
(c) A punt is made by letting the ball fall from the hands and kicking it before it touches the ground.
(d) Kick-off is a place-kick from the center of the field of play, and cannot score a goal.
(e) Kick-out is a drop-kick, or place-kick, by a player of the side which has touched the ball down in their own goal, or into whose touch-in-goal the ball has gone, and cannot score a goal. (See Rules 32 and 34.)
(f) A free-kick is one where the opponents are restrained by rule.
(a) In touch means out of bounds. (b) A fair is putting the ball in play from touch.
The ball adopted and used by the American Intercollegiate Association is the "Spaulding J." ball.
A foul is any violation of a rule.
(a) A touch-down is made when the ball is carried, kicked, or passed across the goal line and there held, either in goal or touch-in-goal. The point where the touch-down scores, however, is not necessarily where the ball is carried across the line, but where the ball is fairly held or called "down."
(b) A safety is made when a player guarding his goal receives the ball from a player of his own side, either by a pass, kick, or a snap-back, and then touches it down behind his goal line, or when he himself carries the ball across his own goal line and touches it down, or when he puts the ball into his own touch-in-goal, or when the ball, being kicked by one of his own side, bounds back from an opponent across the goal line and he then touches it down.
(c) A touch-back is made when a player touches the ball to the ground behind his own goal, the impetus which sent the ball across the line having been received from an opponent.
A punt-out is a punt made by a player of the side which has made a touch-down in their opponents' goal to another of his own side for a fair catch.
A goal may be obtained by kicking the ball in any way except a punt from the field of play (without touching the ground, or dress, or person of any player after the kick) over the cross-bar or post of opponents' goal.
A scrimmage takes place when the holder of the ball puts it down on the ground, and puts it in play by kicking it or snapping it back.
A fair catch is a catch made direct from a kick by one of the opponents, or from a punt-out by one of the same side, provided the catcher made a mark with his heel at the spot where he has made the catch, and no other of his side touch the ball. If the catcher, after making his mark, be deliberately thrown to the ground by an opponent, he shall be given five yards, unless this carries the ball across the goal line.
Charging is rushing forward to seize the ball or tackle a player.
Interference is using the hands or arms in any way to obstruct or hold a player who has not the ball. This does not apply to the man running with the ball.
The ball is dead:
I. When the holder has cried down, or when the referee has cried down, or when the umpire has called foul.
II. When a goal has been obtained.
III. When it has gone into touch, or touch-in-goal, except for punt-out.
IV. When a touch-down or safety has been made.
V. When a fair catch has been heeled. No play can be made while the ball is dead, except to put in play by rule.
The grounds must be 330 feet in length and 160 feet in width, with a goal place in the middle of each goal line, composed of two upright posts, exceeding 20 feet in height, and placed 18 feet 6 inches apart, with cross-bar 10 feet from the ground.
The game shall be played by teams of eleven men each, and in case of a disqualified or injured player a substitute shall take his place. Nor shall the disqualified or injured player return to further participation in the game.
Amendment adopted at a special meeting of the Intercollegiate Association, 1893: "No member of a graduate department, nor a special student shall be allowed to play, nor any undergraduate who has registered or attended lectures or recitations at any other university or college nor by any undergraduate who is not pursuing a course requiring for a degree an attendance of at least three years."
There shall be an umpire and a referee. No man shall act as an umpire who is an alumnus of either of the competing colleges. The umpires shall be nominated and elected by the Advisory Committee. The referee shall be chosen by the two captains of the opposing teams in each game, except in case of disagreement, when the choice shall be referred to the Advisory Committee, whose decision shall be final. All the referees and umpires shall be permanently elected and assigned on or before the third Saturday in October in each year.
(a) The umpire is the judge for the players, and his decision is final regarding fouls and unfair tactics.
(b) The referee is judge for the ball, and his decision is final in all points not covered by the umpire.
(c) Both umpire and referee shall use whistles to indicate cessation of play on fouls and downs. The referee shall use a stop-watch in timing the game.
(d) The umpire shall permit no coaching, either by substitutes, coaches, or any one inside the ropes. If such coaching occur he shall warn the offender, and upon the second offense must have him sent behind the ropes for the remainder of the game.
(a) The time of a game is an hour and a half, each side playing forty-five minutes from each goal. There shall be ten minutes' intermission between the two halves. The game shall be decided by the score of even halves. Either side refusing to play after ordered to by the referee, shall forfeit the game. This shall also apply to refusing to commence the game when ordered to by the referee. The referee shall notify the captains of the time remaining, not more than ten, nor less than five, minutes from the end of each half.