Aberdeen, the chief city and seaport in the north of Scotland, lies in the SE. angle of Aberdeenshire, at the mouth and on the north side of the Dee, 111 miles N. of Edinburgh. William the Lion confirmed its privileges in 1179; the English burned it in 1336, but it was soon rebuilt, and called New Aberdeen. Old Aberdeen, within the same parliamentary boundary, is a small town a mile to the N., near the mouth of the Don, and is the seat of St Machar's Cathedral (1357-1527), now represented by the granite nave. King's College and University, founded by Bishop Elphinstone in Old Aberdeen in 1494, and Maris-chal College and University, founded by the Earl Marischal in New Aberdeen in 1593, were in 1860 united into one institution, the University of Aberdeen. It has 25 professors and from 800 to 900 students in its four faculties of arts, divinity, law, and medicine; with Glasgow University it sends one member to parliament. Marischal College was rebuilt in 1841, and greatly enlarged in 1892-95; whilst King's College is a stately fabric, dating from 1500, its chapel adorned with exquisite wood carvings. Aberdeen has a flourishing trade and thriving manufactures; and having been largely rebuilt and extended since the formation of Union Street in 1800, the 'Granite City' now offers a handsome and regular aspect. Among the chief public edifices are the County Buildings (1867-73), the Post-office (1876), the Market-hall (1842; rebuilt after the fire of 1882), the Trades-hall (1847), the Boyal Infirmary (1740; rebuilt 1840), the Lunatic Asylum (1819), the Grammar-school (1863), the Art Gallery and Art School (1882-83), and Gordon's College (1739-1834). The last has been much extended as a technical school, the foundationers being no longer resident; whilst the Infirmary was reconstructed and modernised to celebrate the Queen's Jubilee (1887). St Nicholas, now divided into the East and West churches, has a fine new spire (1880), 190 feet high. A carillon of 37 bells was placed here in 1887. One may also notice the market-cross (1686); the Wallace, Gordon Pasha, and three other statues; and the Duthie Public Park of 47 acres (1883). Since 1810, when the debt upon the harbour was £29,614, the expenditure on harbour improvements has exceeded £1,000,000, the works having included the formation of the Victoria Dock (1848), a breakwater, the southward diversion of the Dee (1872), and a graving-dock (1886). The trade of the port has largely increased since 1850; and the aggregate tonnage of vessels entering in good years exceeds 600,000 tons. Railway communication has also been fully established since 1848-54. The chief exports are woollens, linens, cotton-yarns, paper, combs, granite (hewn and polished), cattle, grain, preserved provisions, and fish. Aberdeen has the largest comb and granite-polishing works in the kingdom. There are several large paper-works within a short distance of the town; and soap, chemicals, whisky, and agricultural implements are amongst the manufactures. Wooden shipbuilding was formerly a prosperous industry, the Aberdeen clippers being celebrated as fast sailers. Connected with Aberdeen, which has always been a celebrated seat of learning, have been the names of Barbour, Boece, Jameson, Gregory, Reid, Beattie, Campbell, Byron, Skinner, Hill Burton, W. Dyce, J. Phillip, and Sir A. Anderson, to whose provostship (1859-66) belong the introduction of a fine water-supply, and many other improvements. Pop. of the parliamentary burgh, which since 1885 has returned two members, (1801)26,992; (1841)63,288; (1881)105,003; (1891) 121,623; (1901) 153,500.