Aberdeenshire, a large maritime county in the extreme NE. of Scotland. The fifth in size of the Scottish counties, it has a maximum length of 85 and breadth of 47 miles, with 62 miles of sea-coast, and an area of 1971 sq. m. It has long been popularly divided into five districts (proceeding from south-west to north-east)-Mar, Strathbogie, Garioch, Formartine, and Buchan. Aberdeenshire is generally hilly, and in the south-west (Braemar) entirely mountainous, the loftiest summits here being Ben Muich-Dhui (second only to Ben Nevis), 4296 feet; Cairntoul, 4241; Cairngorm, 4084; Benabourd, 3924; Loch-nagar, 3786: whilst northward rise Bennachie, 1698; the Buck of Cabrach, 2368; and Mormond Hill, 769. The predominant rocks are granite and gneiss. The granite is very durable, and is much used for building and polishing. The chief rivers are the Dee (87 miles long), Don (82), and Ythan (35), which run eastward into the North Sea; and the Deveron (61 miles), which runs north-east into the North Sea. The Ythan yields the pearl-mussel, but rarely pearls of any value. The most fertile parts lie between the Don and Ythan, and in the north-east angle of the county. About 37 per cent. of the area of the county is cultivated, the chief crops being oats, barley, and turnips; whilst nearly 8 per cent. is under wood. Aberdeenshire is unsurpassed in breeding and feeding stock. Its principal breed is the Polled Angus. The fisheries on the coast are very productive, and Peterhead is the East Coast centre of this industry. Balmoral (q.v.) is the principal mansion; and amongst the antiquities are the ruins of Kildrummie Castle and the Abbey of Deer. The chief towns and villages are Aberdeen, Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Huntly, Kintore, Inverurie, Turriff, Ballater, and Castle-ton. The county returns two members to parliament; the city of Aberdeen, two; and the burghs of Peterhead, Kintore, and Inverurie, with Elgin, Cullen, and Banff, one. Pop. (1801) 121,065; (1841) 192,387; (1891) 284,036; (1901) 30,440. See the history by A. Smith (1875), the Spalding Club publications, and Watt's Aberdeen and Banff (1900).