Abraham, Plains or Heights of, close to the city of Quebec, the scene of Wolfe's victory, 13th September 1759. They were so called from a pilot, Abraham Martin.


Abrantes (A-bran'tes), a town of Portugal, on the Tagus, 84 miles NE. of Lisbon. Pop. 6380.


Abruzzo (Abroot'so), or Abruzzi, a district of Central Italy, was formerly the north-east corner of the Kingdom of Naples, in the loftiest portion of the Apennines. The jagged mountain groups reach in the Gran Sasso d'Italia 9600 feet.


Abu, a mountain (5650 feet) of India, in the territory of Serohee, Rajputana, a detached granite mass rising like an island from the plain of Marwar, near the Aravalli ridge. It is a celebrated place of pilgrimage, especially for the Jains, who have five temples at Delwara, about the middle of the mountain, two of which are the most superb of all Jain temples. Both are built of white marble, finely carved, and date from 1031 and 1197 a.d. The mountain contains a beautiful lake 4000 feet above the sea; and the region is a summer-resort for Europeans.

Abu Klea

Abu Klea, on the route across country between Korti and Metammeh, both on the great bend of the Nile below Khartoum. Here, on 17th January 1885, Sir Herbert Stewart defeated the Mahdi.


Abushehr. See Bushire.


Abu-Simbel (also Abousambul or Ipsambul), a place on the left bank of the Nile, in Lower Nubia, the site of two very remarkable rock-cut temples, amongst the most perfect and noble specimens of Egyptian architecture.


Aby'dos, (1) a town in Asia Minor, situated at the narrowest part of the Hellespont, opposite Sestos, was the place whence Xerxes and his A'ast army passed into Europe in 480 b.c.; and in poetry is famous for the loves of Hero and Leander.-(2) A city of Upper Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, once second only to Thebes, but even in Strabo's time a mere ruin. Here the remains of the Memnonium and of a temple of Osiris are still remarkable.


Ab'yla. See Ceuta.


Acadia (Acadie) was the name given by the French settlers to Nova Scotia (q.v.), on its first settlement in 1604.


Acajutla (Acahoot-la), a small seaport on the W. coast of San Salvador, with considerable trade.


Acapulco (Acapool'co), the best Mexican harbour on the Pacific, 180 m. SW. of capital. Pop. 5000.


Acarnania, with Aetolia, a north-western province of Greece (q.v.).


Accra, since 1875 capital of the (British) Gold Coast Colony, and after Cape Coast Castle, the most important town on the coast, lies slightly to the W. of the long. of Greenwich. It is a healthy place, and has considerable export trade in palm-oil, ivory, gold dust, india-rubber, monkey skins, gum copal, and camwood. There is telegraphic communication with England, the Niger, and the French and Portuguese settlements to the south. Pop. 20,000.


Accrington, a manufacturing town of Lancashire, incorporated as a municipal borough in 1878. It lies in a deep valley, surrounded by hills, 22 miles N. of Manchester, and 5 1/2 miles E. of Blackburn. The town-hall (1857) is a handsome building, and there is a neat market-hall. The industries are mainly calico-printing, Turkey-red dyeing, iron-founding, with coalmining in the neighbourhood, and chemical works. Pop. (1841) 8719; (1901) 43,120.