Adrar, a region of 30,000 sq. m. in the west of the Sahara, bordering on the Spanish territory of Rio de Oro, but now recognised as - wholly or mostly - French.


Adria, a town of Northern Italy, between the Po and Adige, is one of the oldest cities in Europe, having been founded by the Etruscans. So late as the 12th century a.d., it was a flourishing harbour on the Adriatic Sea, to which it gave name; but it has been gradually separated from the sea, from which it is now 14 miles distant. It still retains several interesting remains of Etruscan and Roman antiquity, with a fine cathedral. Pop. 11,320.


Adrian, a city of Michigan, U.S., situated on the Raisin River. It is well furnished with water-power, commands the trade of a large grain-growing region, has several factories, and a Methodist college founded in 1859. Pop. (1870) 8438; (1890) 8756; (1900) 9654.


Adrianople (Turkish Edirne; Bulgarian Odrin), the third city of European Turkey, stands on the navigable Maritza (the ancient Hebms), 198 miles WNW. of Constantinople by rail. The splendid mosque of Selim II., the palace, and the immense bazaar of Ali Pasha, may be named as its principal features. Founded or greatly improved by the Emperor Hadrian, Adrianople was the seat of the Ottoman sultanate from 1366 to 1453. The Russo-Turkish war was here concluded, September 14, 1829, by the Peace of Adrianople. After the capture of the Turkish army defending the Shipka Pass in January 1878, the Russians entered Adrianople unopposed; and an armistice was concluded here on the 31st. Pop. 80,886.

Adrians Wall

Adrian's Wall. See Hadrian's Wall.


Adur, a Sussex river, flowing 20 miles southward to the English Channel at Shoreham.

Aegean Sea

Aegean Sea, the old name of the gulf between Asia Minor and Greece, now usually called Archipelago (q.v.).


Aegi'na, a mountainous Greek island, 33 sq. m. in area, in the Gulf of Aegina (the ancient Swo-nicus Sinus). The town of Aegina stands at the NW. end of the island. There are considerable remains still left of the ancient city, and the ruius of solidly built walls and harbour moles still attest its size and importance. The island contains about 9000 inhabitants.


Afium-Kara-Hissar ('Opium Black Castle'), a city of Asia Minor, 170 miles ENE. of Smyrna. The chief trade is in opium, and there are manufactures of felts, carpets, arms, and saddlery. Pop. 20,000.


Afton, an Ayrshire stream, joining the Nith at New Cumnock.


Agades (A-ga-des), once a very important city of Africa, and still a great meeting-place of trading caravans, is the capital of the state Air or Asben, south of the Sahara, and is built upon the eastern edge of a great tableland, at an elevation of not less than 2500 feet. In the 16th century it probably contained 60,000 inhabitants; now it has some 7000.


Agadir, the southernmost seaport town in Morocco, at the mouth of the Sus, 23 miles SE. of Cape Ghir. It was once a place of importance; but a revolt in 1773, and the consequent rise of Mogador, have lessened its value, and its pop. now does not exceed 1500.