Agra, a city in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, on the Jumna, 139 miles SE. of Delhi by rail, and 841 NW. of Calcutta. The ancient walls embraced an area of 11 sq. m., of which about one-half is now occupied. The houses are mostly built of red sandstone, and, on the whole, Agra is the handsomest city in Upper India. Some of the public buildings, monuments of the house of Timur, are on a scale of striking magnificence. Among these are the fortress built by Akbar, within the walls of which are the palace and audience-hall of Shah Jehan, the Moti Masjid or Pearl Mosque, and the Jama Masjid or Great Mosque. Still more celebrated is the white marble Taj Mahal, situated without the city, about a mile to the east of the fort. This extraordinary and beautiful mausoleum was built by the Emperor Shah Jehan for himself and his favourite wife, who died in 1629; and is remarkable alike for the complexity and grace of the general design, and the elaborate perfection of the workmanship. In the centre, on a raised platform, is the mausoleum, surmounted by a beautiful dome, with smaller domes at each corner, and four graceful minarets (133 feet high). Of British edifices the principal are the Government House, the Government College, three missionary colleges, the English church, and the barracks. The climate, during the hot and rainy seasons (April to September), is very injurious to Europeans; but the average health of the city is equal to that of any other station in the North-western Provinces. The principal articles of trade are cotton, tobacco, salt, grain, and sugar. There are manufactures of shoes, pipe stems, and gold lace, and of inlaid mosaic work, for which Agra is famous. It is a very important railway centre, and has many claims to be regarded as the commercial capital of the Northwest. Pop. (1901) 188,022. Agra first rose to importance in the beginning of the 16th century, and was the capital of the Mogul sovereigns till 1658, when Aurungzebe removed to Delhi. It was taken in 1784 by Sindhia, and surrendered in 1803 to Lord Lake. From 1835 till 1862, it was the seat of government for the North-west Provinces. During the mutiny the Europeans had, in June 1857, to retire to the Fort or Residency. Heroic sallies were occasionally made; and Agra was relieved early in October by the rapid and brilliant march of Colonel Greathed.