Alham'a (Arabic Al Hammam, 'the bath'), & decayed town of Andalusia, Spain, 24 miles SW. of Granada. Its warm sulphur baths are still frequented by visitors. It was a famous fortress of the Moors; and there are still remains of Roman and Moorish buildings. The town was much injured by a severe earthquake in the end of 1885. Pop. 7867. - Alhama de Abagon, 8 miles SW. of Calatayud, has famous mineral springs. Pop. 1500. - Alhama, 13 miles SW. of Murcia, is also celebrated for its warm mineral waters. Pop. 8356.
Alican'te, chief town of a Spanish province, on a bay of the Mediterranean, 282 miles SE. of Madrid by rail. It is the third seaport in the kingdom. The chief exports are esparto grass, lead, wine, almonds, and liquorice root. Its climate is well suited for invalids. Population, 50,250. - The province, formed in 1834 of parts of the old kingdoms of Valencia and Murcia, has an area of 2098 sq. m. The wine of Alicante has a high reputation, and there are about twenty lead and copper mines. Pop. (1900) 470,150.
Aligarh (or Allygurh), a fort in the United Provinces of India, 55 miles N. of Agra. It was stormed by the British in 1803; and here early in the mutiny of 1857 - ten days after the outbreak at Meerut - the native troops rose. There is here a Mohammedan Anglo-Indian college. Fort, station, and the native city of Koil form the municipality of Aligarh; pop. 70,000.
Alima, a right-hand tributary of the Congo, flowing mainly westward.
Aliwal, a Punjab village on the Sutlej, 9 miles W. of Ludhiana; scene of a British victory over the Sikhs on 28th June 1846. - Aliwal North, a town of Cape Colony, just across the Orange from the Orange Colony, with a brisk trade; pop. 3500. - Aliwal South, a port of Cape Colony, 200 miles E. of Capetown; pop. 3000.
Alkmaar, an old town of the Netherlands, on the North Holland Canal, 19 miles N. by W. of Amsterdam by rail. It has a Gothic town-house, the 15th-century church of St Lawrence, manufactures of sailcloth, sea-salt, etc, and trade in cattle, grain, butter, and excellent cheese - of which it exports enormous quantities. Alkmaar held out against Alba in 1573, and here, in 1799, the Duke of York signed a not very honourable capitulation. Pop. 19,048.
Alleghanies (Allegai'nies), a term sometimes used as synonymous with the Appalachians (q. v.), sometimes applied only to that portion of the system which extends from Pennsylvania to North. Carolina, and which forms the watershed between the Atlantic and the Mississippi. It is sometimes used in a still more restricted sense. The ridges, 2000 to 2400 feet high, are remarkable for their parallelism and regularity, all the main valleys being longitudinal. Composed of stratified rocks of the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous ages, they are rich in coal, iron, and limestone, and their forests supply much valuable timber.