Algiers (Aljeers'; Fr. Alger; Ar. Al-jezair, 'the islands'), the capital of Algeria, was built about 935 a.d. by an Arab chief. It rises from the sea-shore up the sides of a precipitous hill in the form of an equilateral triangle. The apex is formed by the Kasbah, the ancient fortress of the deys, which is 500 feet above sea-level. With the exception of some mosques, the new or low town consists of wharfs, warehouses, government houses, squares, and streets, principally built and inhabited by the French; while the old or high town is almost wholly Moorish. The great glory of the city is the Boulevard de la Republique, with its magnificent terrace, built in 1860-66 by Sir Morton Peto, at a cost of eight million francs. Here may be found as motley a crowd as anywhere in the world, denizens of all nations - Arabs, Moors, and Jews; French, Spaniards, Maltese, English, Germans, and Italians. The shops, too, are occasionally very good. The French have at great expense improved the port, which is safe and spacious and has a lighthouse. It is strongly fortified, and can contain 40 warships and 300 trading vessels. The original harbour was made in 1525 by connecting with the shore four little islands (hence the name of the city). Near the great quays is the railway station, connecting Algiers with Constantine and Oran. The town has a Catholic cathedral, a French Protestant church, an English church, a synagogue, a library, museum, hospitals, theatres, and banks. There is a great trade, Algiers being the chief commercial place in Algeria. Algiers has become famous as a winter residence for Europeans suffering from chest diseases. It fell into the hands of the French in 1830. Pop. (1901)96,550; with suburbs, 140,000 - not quite half French.