Allahabad ('city of God'), the seat of the government of the United Provinces of British India, occupies the fork of the Ganges and Jumna, 390 miles SE. of Delhi, and 564 WNW. of Calcutta. The situation of Allahabad, at the confluence of the holy streams of India, has rendered it a much-frequented place of pilgrimage. A stronghold existed here from the earliest times, but the present fort and city were founded by Akbar in 1575. From 1736 till 1750 the Mahrattas held Allahabad, which was ceded to the British in 1801. On 6th June 1857, the mutiny extended to Allahabad; and, the Europeans continuing to hold the fort, the city soon became little better than a heap of ruins. The position of Allahabad, with its ready communication by river and rail, renders it naturally a centre of commerce and civilisation. The most noteworthy buildings are the great mosque and the Sultan Khossor's caravanserai - a fine cloistered quadrangle. The fort contains the famous pillar of Asoka (240 b.c). Near by is the temple covering the undying banian tree; it is said to communicate with Benares by a subterranean passage, through which flows a third holy river, the Saraswati, visible only to the eye of faith. Allahabad possesses the government offices and courts, Roman Catholic cathedral, Mayo Memorial and town hall, a free public library, &tc. The Muir Central College, instituted by Sir W. Muir, was opened in 1886; and a university was opened in 1889. A great fair is held annually, which is visited by about 250,000 persons. The cotton, sugar, and indigo produce of the fertile district of Allahabad is brought in large quantities into the city. Pop. (1872) 143,693; (1901) 172,032. - Allahabad district is 85 miles in length by 50 in breadth. Area, 2850 sq. m.; pop. 1,500,000.