Alloway, Bums's birthplace, and the scene of his Tarn o' Shanter, lies on the right bank of the 'bonny Doon,' 2 miles S. of the town of Ayr. The 'auld clay biggin,' in which the poet was born on 25th January 1759, was in 1880 converted into a Burns Museum. The 'haunted kirk' still stands, a roofless ruin, near the 'Auld Brig;' and hard by is the Burns Monument (1820).
Allygurh. See Aligarh.
Alma, a river in the Crimea, rising at the foot of the Tchadir Dagh, and flowing westward into the Bay of Kalamita, half-way between Eupat-oria and Sebastopol. On its steep banks a brilliant victory was won on 20th of September 1854, by the allied armies of Britain and France, under Lord Raglan and Marshal St Arnaud, over the Russian army commanded by Prince Menschikoff.
Almaden', a town of Spain, in the chain of the Sierra Morena, 50 miles SW. of Ciudad Real. It is famous for its twelve rich quicksilver mines, employing 4000 miners, with an annual output of 2,500,000 lb. The present mines, 1200 feet deep, date from the 17th century; but the quicksilver was worked here by the Romans. Crown property, they were rented by the Fuggers of Augsburg (1525-1645), and by the Rothschilds (1836-63), but are now again carried on by gov--ernment. Pop. 8126. - New Almaden, in the Coast Range, California, 12 miles from San Jose, was first worked regularly for mercury in 1845, and now yields upwards of 2,000,000 lb. a year.
Almagro, a town of Spain, 13 miles ESE. of Ciudad Real. It has a great manufacture of lace. Pop. 8289.
Almali. See Elmalu.
Almansa, a town of Spain in the province of Albacete, 60 miles NW. of Alicante by rail. There is a ruined Moorish castle. An obelisk, about a mile distant, marks the spot where the French, under the Duke of Berwick, on 25th April 1707, defeated an army of Spanish and English troops. Pop. 9480.
Almeida, one of the strongest fortified places in Portugal, on the Spanish frontier, and in the province of Beira. In 1762 it was captured by the Spaniards, and in 1810 it was defended against Massena by an English officer, until the explosion of a powder-magazine compelled him to capitulate. Pop. 2500.
Almeri'a (Arabic Al-Mariyat, 'the conspicuous '), the chief town of a Spanish province, on a gulf or bay of the Mediterranean, 120 miles E. of Malaga. It has a well-defended harbour, a cathedral, and a grammar-school. In the time of the Moors, it was, next to Granada, the richest town in the kingdom, with 150,000 inhabitants. Now, it has only a few trifling manufactures, although it still keeps up considerable trade. The much-needed railway from Linares to this isolated port was being made in 1893-94. Population, about 50,000. - The province consists of the eastern portion of the ancient kingdom of Granada, and has an area of 3302 sq. m. There are rich mines in the sierras, yielding copper, iron, mercury, silver, and lead. Population. 360,000.