Alpes Maritimes

Alpes Maritimes, a dep. in the extreme SB. of France, on the shores of the Mediterranean and confines of Italy, was formed in 1860. It is made up. of the ancient county of Nice, then ceded to France, and of the arrondissement of Grasse. The chain of the Alpes Maritimes forms the northern boundary of the dep., and from it numerous spurs run seaward, among which are lovely and fertile valleys. The silkworm is reared, and honey exported. There are some mineral springs. The tunny, anchovy, and sardine fisheries are important. The capital is Nice, and the other principal towns are Antibes, Ville-franche, Cannes, Grasse, and Menton or Mentone. Area, 1482 sq. m.; pop. 293,500.

Alpnach

Alpnach, or Alpnacht, a Swiss village, in the canton of Unterwalden, at the foot of Mount Pilatus, 1 1/2 mile from that part of Lake Lucerne called Lake Alpnach. Its celebrated 'slide,' 8 miles long, for the timber of Mount Pilatus, is now disused. Pop. 1679.

Alpujarras

Alpujarras (Al-poo-har'ras; Arabic Al-Bush-erat), a name applied to all the valleys lying south of the chief chain of the Sierra Nevada, in the south of Spain.

Alsen

Alsen, a Baltic island off the coast of Sles-wick. Formerly Danish, it became Prussian in 1864. It is 19 miles long, and 12 broad; its area is 121 sq. m. Pop. 25,000, almost all Danish-speaking. The chief town is the port of Sonder-borg; pop. 6000.

Alster

Alster, a river in Holstein, formed by the confluence of three streams, in the neighbourhood of Hamburg spreads itself out, and forms a lake, called the Great or Outer Alster, and within the town, the Inner Alster. It flows by several channels into the Elbe.

Alston

Alston, a market-town of Cumberland, 26 miles ESE. of Carlisle. Pop. of parish, 31S4.

Altamura

Altamu'ra, a town of South Italy, 28 miles SW. of Bari, with a fine cathedral, founded in 1220; pop. 19,817.

Altea

Alte'a, a Spanish seaport, 25 miles NE. of Alicante; pop. 5865.

Altena

Al'tena, a town of Prussia, 47 miles NW. of Siegen by rail, with manufactures of needles, pins, and hardware; pop. 12,900.

Altenburg

Altenburg, the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on the Pleisse, 30 miles S. of Leipzig by rail. On an almost perpendicular rock of porphyry stands the old castle of Altenburg, the scene in 1455 of the 'Prinzenraub.' Its foundations are probably as old as the 11th century; and, since the two fires of 1865 and 1868, it has been finely restored. Brushes, woollen goods, gloves, and cigars are manufactured. Pop. (1890) 31,439; (1900) 37,150.

Altengaard

Altengaard, a hamlet in Finmarken, the northernmost province of Norway, on the south Side of the Alten Fiord, in 69° 55' N. lat., with a meteorological station.

Althorp Park

Althorp Park, the seat of Earl Spencer, 6 miles NW. of Northampton.

Alton

Alton, a town of Hampshire, 8 3/4 miles SW. of Farnham. Its Perpendicular parish church was thoroughly restored in 1867. Hops are grown in the neighbourhood, and there are large breweries in the town. Pop. 5600.

Alton

Alton, a city and port of Illinois, U.S., on the left bank of the Mississippi, 24 miles N. of St Louis. Laid out in 1817, and since 1868 the seat of a Catholic bishopric, it is a centre of commerce, and has a Baptist college (1836). Pop. (1860) 6332; (1900) 14,210.