Amalfi (Amal'fee), a seaport on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles SE. of Naples. It has a Romanesque cathedral. Founded under Constantino the Great, and long a powerful republic, with 50,000 inhabitants, and 'doges' of its own, it fell about the close of the 11th century under the power of the Normans, was plundered by the Pisans in 1135, and saw its commercial decay completed by a terrible storm in 1343. Masani-ello was a native. Pop. 7792.
Amarapu'ra (' city of the gods'), till 1860 the capital of Burma, was situated on the left bank of the Irawadi, 6 miles NE. of Ava. Founded in 1783, it was totally destroyed by fire in 1810, and almost totally by earthquake in 1839; so that the population dwindled from 175,000 in 1800, to almost nil after Mandalay became the seat of government. Little remains but some beautiful trees, and a few ruined pagodas.
Amasia, a town in the province of Sivas, in Asia Minor, in the deep valley of the Yeshil-Irmak. The ancient town, long capital of the kings of Pontus, was the birthplace of Strabo. There are numerous interesting remains of antiquity, particularly the tombs of the kings of Pontus. Silk and salt are the chief articles of export. Pop. 25,000.
Amatitlan, a deep lake in the Central American state of Guatemala, surrounded with precipitous volcanic rocks. It empties into the Pacific Ocean through the river Michatoyat. Near the lake are many hot springs, and on the river is the town of Amatitlan, as late as 1840 a miserable Indian village, but now, through the introduction of the cochineal culture, an active town of 10,000 inhabitants.
Amazo'nas, (1) the northernmost province of Brazil, has an area of 750,000 sq. m., and a pop. of 148,000. - (2) A fertile department of Peru, bounded on the N. by Ecuador. Area, 14,150 sq. m.; pop. 70.800.
Ambala. See Umballa.
Amber, a decayed city in the Rajput state of Jaipur, India, formerly its capital, about 4 miles NE. of Jaipur, with a vast but deserted palace. It is situated on the margin of a small lake, in a deep hollow among hills.
Amberg, a town of Bavaria, 35 miles E. of Nuremberg. Chief buildings are the town-hall (1490) and St Martin's (1421), with a steeple 321 feet high. There is a large arsenal, some manufactures, and mining. Near is the Maria-Hilfs-berg, a place of pilgrimage. Pop. 22,500.
Ambleside, a market-town of Westmorland, situated in the heart of the Lake District, about a mile from the head of Lake Windermere. Rydal Mount, for many years the residence of Wordsworth; Fox How, a summer retreat of Dr Arnold; and the Knoll, where Miss Martineau lived and died, are all in the neighbourhood. Coarse woollen cloths are made here. Pop. 23C0.