Angola, a name formerly used loosely of the whole West African coast from Cape Lopez to Benguela, but restricted, since the establishment of the Congo Free State in 1885, to the Portuguese West African possessions, extending from the Congo southward to Cape Frio; or even more narrowly, to the northern section between the Congo and the Coanza. Area, 312,000 sq. m.; pop. 2,000,000. The coast strip is level, barren, extremely hot, and very unhealthy. Beyond is hill-country, reaching a height of 3000 feet. The main rivers are the Kwango, running north to the Congo, and the Coanza and Cunene, running west to the Atlantic Yams, tobacog, indigo, rice, cotton, and sugar are freely produced; but under Portuguese mismanagement the wealth of the country is undeveloped or decaying. There is abundance of iron in the mountains; also copper, lead, sulphur, and petroleum are obtained. Angola was long notorious for its great slave-trade. The natives are Congo negroes, and belong to the great Bantu stock. In the 16th century they were mostly converted by the Jesuits to a kind of Christianity, but soon fell back into fetichism. Many of the 3000 white men, mostly Portuguese, are transported convicts, and there are some 30,000 mulattos. The Portuguese under Diego Cam discovered this coast in 1486, but St Paul de Loanda was not built till 1578.