Anspach. See Ansbach.


Anstruther, Easter and Wester, two contiguous royal burghs on the coast of Fife, 9 miles S. of St Andrews. Fishing and fish-curing are the staple industries, the harbour (1866-77) being at Cellardyke. East Anstruther was the birthplace of Dr Chalmers, Tennant the poet, and Goodsir the anatomist. With the other St Andrews burghs, they return one member to the House of Commons. Joint pop. 1700; or, with Kilrenny, 4500.


Antananarivo, or Tananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, has a population estimated at 100,000. It is situated on a lull, in an undulating district, at an elevation of 5000 feet above the level of the sea, from which it is distant 110 miles.


Anteque'ra (the Antiquaria of the Romans), a town in the Spanish province of Malaga, on the Guadalhorce, 65 miles W. of Granada by rail. Held by the Moors from 712 to 1410, it retains some portions of a Moorish castle and of the ancient walls. Pop. 31,600.


Antibes (Ongteeb; anc. Antipolis), a seaport in the French dep. of Alpes Maritimes, 7 1/2 miles S. of Cannes. Founded by a colony of Greeks from Massilia (Marseilles), Antibes in the Austrian War of Succession was severely bombarded by Browne during a three months' siege (1746). Pop. 8950.


Anticosti, a Canadian island in the Gulf of St Lawrence, which it divides into two channels, is 140 miles long, and 30 broad in the centre. The hills in the interior rise to about 600 feet. Anticosti has two good havens, one at Ellice Bay, near the western end, and the other at Fox Bay, in the NW. The climate is severe; the surface an alternation of rocks and swamps. It is visited by fishermen in the summer, but there are hardly any inhabitants save lighthouse-keepers and a few officials.


Antietam (pron. Antee-tam), a narrow but deep river in Maryland, U.S., falling into the Potomac 7 miles above Harper's Ferry. On its banks, near Sharpsburg, on 17th September 1862, the Union troops under McClellan defeated the Confederates under Lee, though at a loss of nearly 13,000 men.


Antig'ua, a West India island, the most important of the Leeward Islands, is 28 miles long and 14 wide; in Boggies Hill attains a maximum altitude of 1328 feet; and has an area of 97 sq. m. Antigua was discovered in 1493 by Columbus, who named it after the church of Santa Maria La Antigua in Seville. It was first settled by a few English in 1632, and was declared a British possession by the Treaty of Breda (1667). Antigua is the seat of an Anglican bishop. It has suffered severely from earthquakes - as in 1689, 1843, and 1874 - and from hurricanes. Numerous islets, rocks, and shoals border the shore, so that, generally speaking, access is difficult and dangerous. Antigua produces large quantities of sugar, molasses, rum, tamarinds, arrowroot, and cotton. Pop., including Barbuda, a little over 35,000; of St John, the capital, 10,000.