Appenzell' (from Abbatis Cello), a double . canton in the NE. of Switzerland. It is divided into two divisions - Innerroden and Ausserroden; the former of which is peopled by Roman Catholics; the latter by Protestants, and noted for its dense population. The surface is mountainous, especially in the south, where Mount Sentis attains 8220 feet. The chief river is the Sittern. The canton, once dependent on the Abbey of St Gall, won its independence after a struggle, and joined the seven old cantons in 1452. Area, 162 sq. m.; pop. (1900) 68,780, of whom over 55,000 were in Ausserroden. Appenzell, the capital, is situated on the Sittern; pop. 4500. The largest town is Herisau (pop. 14,100).


Appin (Apthane, 'abbey lands'), a beautiful coast district of Argyllshire, extending along the east shore of Loch Linnhe, 15 miles NNE. of Oban. It is the country of a branch of the Stewarts.


Appleby, the county town of Westmorland, on the Eden, 13 miles SE. of Penrith. There is a castle, first mentioned in 1088, the keep of which, called Caesar's Tower, is still in tolerable condition. Appleby was disfranchised in 1832, but received a new municipal charter in 1885. Pop. 1776.


Appleton, a city of Wisconsin, U.S., 185 miles N. of Chicago, and 120 miles from Milwaukee by rail. It stands on the Grand Chute Rapids of the Fox River, which, with a descent of 30 feet in 1 1/2 mile, affords immense water-power for flour, paper, and woollen mills. There are also manufactures of machinery. Lawrence University (1847) is a Methodist institution. Pop. (1880) 8005; (1890) 11,869; (1900) 15,085.

Appomattox Courthouse

Appomattox Courthouse, a village of Virginia, 20 miles E. of Lynchburg. Here Lee, on April 9, 1865, surrendered the army of Northern Virginia, 27,805 men strong, to Grant.


Apsheron, a peninsula on the west coast of the Caspian Sea, belonging to the Russian government of Baku. Its enormous petroleum industry is noticed at Baku (q.v.).


Apt (Apta Julia), a cathedral town in the French dep. of Vaucluse, 30 miles E. of Avignon; pop. 4378.


Apulia (modern Puglia), the south-eastern part of Italy as far as the promontory of Leuca, comprising the three provinces of Bari, Foggia, and Lecce, with an area of 8540 sq. m., and a pop. of 2,054,000.


Apu're, a navigable river of Venezuela, which rises near the western boundary among the Eastern Cordillera, and flows nearly 1000 miles eastward to the Orinoco.


Apu'rimac, a river of Peru, also called Tambo, which, after a northward course of 500 miles, helps to form the Ucayali, and finally joins the Amazon. It gives name to a province with an area of 8200 sq. m., and a pop. of 1S0,000.


Aq'uila, the capital of an Italian province, on the Altemo, near the loftiest of the Apennines, 64 miles SB. of Terni by rail. It was built by the Emperor Frederick II. from the ruins of the ancient Amiternum, a town of the Sabines, and birthplace of Sallust the historian. In 1703 it was almost destroyed by an earthquake, in which 2000 persons perished. It is a bishop's see, and a busy place, with a large trade in saffron. Pop. 24,720.