Arabgir' (anc. Anabrace), a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the province of Sivas, not far from the Euphrates, and on the caravan road from Aleppo to Trebizond. Pop. 30,000, one-fourth Armenians, the rest Turks.
Arabian Gulf. See Red Sea.
Aracan. See Arakan.
Arad, a town of Hungary, on the Maros, an affluent of the Theiss, 95 miles SE. of Buda-Pesth, and 74 E. of Szegedin by rail. It carries on a large trade in corn, spirits, wine, and tobacco, and is one of the greatest cattle-markets in Hungary. Pop. 56,260. - New Arad, across the river, has 5000 inhabitants.
Ar'afat, Mount, a granite hill (260 feet), 15 miles SE. of Mecca, visited by the faithful, and believed to be the spot where Adam again met Eve, after a punitive separation of 200 years.
Ar'agon, once a kingdom, now divided into the three provinces of Saragossa, Huesca, and Teruel, in the NE. of Spain. Area, 17,980 sq.. m.; population, 913,000. It is bounded on the north by the Pyrenees, and watered by the Ebro. Aragon was conquered by the Moors in the beginning of the 8th century, recovered from them and united with Catalonia (1137), and was united with Castile through the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon with Isabella, heiress of Castile (1469). The chief towns are Saragossa, Calatayud, Huesca, and Teruel.
Araguay', a large river of Brazil, flowing 1000 miles northward, till, at San Joao, it joins the Tocantins, which again, after a northerly course of 300 miles more, mingles its estuary with that of the Amazon.
Ar'akan, long the most northerly division of British Burma, is a narrow strip of territory on the Bay of Bengal. Its length is 400 miles, its breadth varies from 90 miles in the north to about 15; and the area is 14,526 sq. m. A range of mountains, nearly parallel with the line of coast, the highest point 7000 feet above sea-level, separates Arakan from Pegu and Upper Burma. Rice is the chief article of exportation; the others are cotton, tobacco, sugar, hemp, indigo, betel-nuts, and timber, especially teak. The imports consist mainly of British manufactures. Pop. 787,518.
Aral, Lake, separated by the plateau of Ust-Urt from the Caspian Sea, is the largest lake in the steppes of Asia. It has an area of about 24,000 sq. m.; is fed by the Jaxartes and Oxus (the present Sir-Daria and Amu-Daria); has no outlet; and is generally shallow, its only deep water (225 feet) being on the west coast. Its level is 117 feet above that of the Caspian, which is 84 feet below the surface of the Black Sea. Like other lakes which are drained only by evaporation, it is brackish. Fish, including sturgeon, carp, and herring, are abundant. The lake is dotted with multitudes of islands and islets; and navigation is difficult. The area now occupied by the Sea of Aral has been dry land twice within historical times - the Jaxartes and the Oxus then running south of the Sea of Aral to the Caspian. This was the case during the Greco-Roman period, and again during the 13th and 14th centuries a.d.