Aran, South Isles of, Ireland, are three small islands lying NE. and SW. across the entrance to Galway Bay. Total area, 11,287 acres. They rise to a height of from 200 to 354 feet on the west side, ending in cliffs facing the Atlantic. Most of the land is rudely cultivated. Inish-more, the chief island, is still known as Aran-na-naomh, or 'Aran of the Saints.' Pop. 3100. See Burke's South Isles of Aran (1887).


Aranjuez (A-ran-hoo-ayth'; Lat. Ara Jovis), a town of Spain, on the Tagus, 30 miles SSE. of Madrid by rail. Its palace was long a favourite spring-resort of the royal family, from Charles V. downwards. Pop. 12,700.


Aras (anc. Araxes), the chief river of Armenia, formed by the junction of the Bingol-Su and the Kaleh-Su, and itself, after a course of 500 miles, joining the Kur (anc. Cyrus), which descends from the Caucasus through Georgia, about 75 miles from its mouth. Their united waters turn suddenly to the south, and fall by three mouths into the Caspian.


Araucania, the country of the Araucos or Araucanian Indians, in the south of Chili. The Chilian province of Arauco, lying between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean, and bounded on the north by Concepcion, on the south by Valdivia, was formed in 1875, with an area of 8100 sq. m., and a pop. (1903) of 71,500. A large part of Arauco and the more southerly province of Valdivia is occupied by Indians, who have mostly submitted to Chilian authority. The Araucanians are a fierce and warlike people, now numbering more than 50,000.


Arau're, a town of Venezuela, 60 miles ENE. of Truxillo. Pop. 5000.


Aravalli, a range of mountains in Western India, extending 300 miles north-eastward through Rajputana. The highest summit is Abu (q.v.), 5650 feet.


Arbe'la, now Erbil or Arbil, a small town of Assyria, east from Mosul, gave name to Alexander's final defeat of Darius, 331 b.c.


Arbigland, an estate, the birthplace of Paul Jones, on the coast of Kirkcudbrightshire, 13 miles S. of Dumfries.


Arbirlot, a Forfarshire parish, 3 miles W. by S. of Arbroath. Archbishop Gladstanes and Dr Guthrie were ministers.


Arbo'ga, a town in Sweden, on the small river Arboga, by which, with the aid of a canal, the lakes Hielmar and Malar are united, 101 miles WNW. of Stockholm by rail. Pop. 5823.


Arbois, a town in the French dep. of Jura, 7 miles NE. of Poligny by rail. Pop. 4040.


Arbroath', or Aberbroth'ock, a seaport of Forfarshire, at the mouth of the Brothock Burn, 17 miles BNE. of Dundee. Here in 1178 William the Lion founded a Tyronensian abbey in which he was buried (1214), and which was destroyed by the Reformers in 1560. The picturesque ruins of its cruciform church, which measured 276 by 160 feet, present a noble west doorway and a rose-window, 'the round O of Arbroath.' The chief industries are flax-spinning, engineering, and the manufacture of boots, sail-cloth, and linen fabrics. The new harbour, begun in 1841, admits vessels of 400 tons; the old harbour was converted into a wet-dock (1871-77). The chief exports are grain, potatoes, fish, and paving-flags; the chief imports are coal, flax, hemp, jute, and hides. Arbroath is a royal burgh, and with Montrose, etc, returns one member. Arbroath is the 'Fairport' of Scott's Antiquary. Pop. (1831) 13,795; (1901) 22,546. See works by Miller (1860), Hay (1876), and J. Adam (1886).