Arko'na, the NE. promontory of the island of Rugen, in the Baltic. Its chalk cliffs, rising 177 feet, are topped with a lighthouse (1827), itself 78 feet high. Here stood a famous fortification long impregnable, and the temple of the Wend deity Swantewit, destroyed by Waldemar I. of Denmark in 1168.


Arlberg, a crystalline mountain mass of Austria amongst the Alps, which forms the boundary between the Tyrol and Vorarlberg ('the land before or beyond the Arlberg'). The difficult pass over this ridge, from Bludenz to Landeck and Innsbruck, is 5300 feet high; but a railway, with a main tunnel 6720 yards long, through the Arlberg Alp was opened in 1884.


Aries (Roman Arelate), a town in the French dep. of Bouches du Rhone, on the principal branch of the Rhone, 15 miles from the sea, and 53 miles NW. of Marseilles. Its Roman remains include baths, a palace of Constantine, an aqueduct, and an amphitheatre for 25,000 spectators. The cathedral (7th century) has a splendid doorway. Aries manufactures silk, hats, tobacco, brandy, soap, glass bottles, and railway wagons. Pop. 13,876.


Arlon (Arlong'), a town of Belgium, 27 miles WNW. of Luxemburg by rail. Pop. 7684.


Armadale, a police-burgh of Linlithgowshire, with chemical works, 2 1/2 miles W. by S. of Bathgate. Pop. 3990.


Armagnac (Ar-man-yac), a district in the south of France, a part of Gascony now mostly included in the dep. of Gers. The soil is fertile, and its wine and brandy (Eau d'Armagnac) are well known.


Armentieres, a manufacturing town in the French dep. of Nord, on the Lys, 12 miles WNW. of Lille by rail. Pop. 26,500.


Armisticio, a territory of Venezuela, with an area of 7040 sq. m., bounded on the S. and W. by the United States of Colombia.


Armor'ica, an old name of Brittany (q.v.).


Arnhem, the capital of the Dutch province of Guelderland, on the Rhine, 38 miles ESE. of Utrecht. The manufactures include tobacco, woollen and cotton goods, soap, and paper. Sir Philip Sidney died here in 1586; in 1813 the town was taken by the Prussians. Pop. (1891) 51,105; (1903) 60,150.

Arnhem Land

Arnhem Land, a name formerly applied to a region in northern Australia (belonging to the colony of South Australia), so called from the ship of the Dutch navigators who discovered it in 1618.


Arno, next to the Tiber the most considerable river of Central Italy, rises on Mount Falterona, an offset of the Apennines, at 4444 feet above sea-level, and 25 miles N. of Arezzo. It flows 140 miles westward to the sea, 11 miles below Pisa, where it once had its embouchure. At Florence it is 400 feet wide, but is fordable in summer. Of its rapid and destructive inundations the most memorable were those of 1537 and 1740.


Arnold, a town of Notts, 5 1/2 miles N. by E. of Nottingham, with lace and stocking manufactures. Bonington was a native. Pop. 8769.