Armagh', the capital of County Armagh, 33 miles SW. of Belfast, is situated on a gentle eminence, whence its Ard-Magha, 'high field. The cruciform 12th-century cathedral occupies the site of one founded by St Patrick in the 5th century. A new Roman Catholic cathedral (1904) occupies the principal height to the north, and the primate's palace that to the south. There are a college, a celebrated observatory, public library (1771), and barracks for 200 men. The chief manufacture is linen-weaving. Armagh, from 495 to the 9th century, was the metropolis of Ireland, renowned as a school of theology and literature. Till 1885 it returned one member. Pop. 7500.

Armagh

Armagh, a small inland county in Ulster, Ireland. Its greatest length is 32 miles, and breadth 20. Area, 512 1/2 sq. m., about one-half under tillage. Slieve Gullion, in the SW., attains 1893 feet. The country bordering upon Lough Neagh is low and boggy, and the Louth plain extends into the south end of Armagh. The principal rivers are the Callan, Tynan, Upper Bann, and Blackwater. The soil is fertile, with a good deal of bog. Besides agriculture, linen and cotton weaving are the chief industries. The county returns three members of parliament. The chief towns are Armagh, Lurgan, Porta-down, and part of Newry. Pop. (1841) 233,024; (1891) 143,056; (1901) 125,392, of whom 45 per cent, were Catholics, and 32 Episcopalians.