Arnstadt, the chief town in the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, on the Gera, 10 ' miles S. of Erfurt. Dating back to 704 a.d., it is now a manufacturing town, with weaving, glove-making, brewing, etc. Pop. 14,818.
Arnswalde, a Prussian town, 41 miles SE. of Stettin, between three lakes. Pop. 8378.
Arolsen, the capital of the principality of Waldeck, on the Aar, 14 miles SSW. of Warburg. Its castle (1720) contains West's ' Death of Wolfe.' The sculptor Rauch and the painter Kaulbach were natives. Pop. 2620.
Arracan. See Arakan.
Arragon. See Aragon.
Arras, the capital of the French dep. of Pas-de-Calais, on the navigable Scarpe, 120 miles N. of Paris. A fortress of the first rank, it has a cathedral (1755-1833) and a beautiful Gothic h6tel-de-ville (1510), whose belfry, 246 feet high, was rebuilt in 1835. There are manufactures of lace, hosiery, beet-sugar, etc.; and its tapestry was formerly so famous that in England the name arras was given to all such hangings. Arras was the capital of the Celtic Atrebates (whence the name), and subsequently of Artois. It did not finally become French till 1640. Robespierre was a native. Pop. (1872) 21,447; (1891) 25,701; (1901) 25,850.
Arru Islands, a group of over eighty islands in the Dutch East Indies, lying west of New Guinea, with a united area of 2650 sq. m., and a population of 15,000. The largest island is Tanna-Besar (77 miles long by 50 broad). The surface is low, the coasts are steep and inaccessible, on the east side fringed with coral reefs. The soil is covered with the most luxuriant vegetation.
Arsamas, a Russian town, 60 miles S. of Nijni-Novgorod; pop. 11,497.
Arta (Turkish Narda, the ancient Ambracia), capital of a division of Thessaly, ceded to Greece by Turkey in 1881 (area, 395 sq. m.; pop. 31,178). The town stands on the Arta (the ancient Arac-thus), 8 miles from its mouth in the Gulf of Arta (the ancient Ambracian Gulf), an arm of the Ionian Sea between Greece and Albania. It is the see of a Greek archbishop. Pop. 7328.