Ashland (1), a post-borough of Schuylkill county, Pennsylvania, 119 miles NW. of Philadelphia by rail. It depends principally upon its rich mines of anthracite coal; but it has also foundries, machine-shops, and several mills. Pop. (1890) 7346; (1900) 6438. (2) Capital of Ashland county, Wisconsin, on Lake Superior, 391 miles by rail NW. of Milwaukee. It has a busy trade in lumber, is a terminus of five railways, and has grown up since 1880. Pop, 13,500.'
Ashraf, a town in the Persian province of Mazanderan, near the south coast of the Caspian Sea, 56 miles W. of Astrabad. A favourite residence of Shah Abbas the Great, it still contains over 800 houses.
Ashton-under-Lyne, a town of Lancashire, 6 1/2 miles E. of Manchester. It was enfranchised in 1832, and returns one member. A great seat of the cotton manufacture, it suffered severely during the cotton famine (1861-65). The population is also employed in bleaching, dyeing, and calico-printing, in collieries, and in the manufacture of machines, bricks, etc. Among the buildings are the town-hall (1841), the infirmary (1860), and the old parish church, with tombs of the Assheton family, from whom-the town got its name. Pop. (1851) 29,791; (1901) 51,080, of whom 43,890 were within the municipal borough.
Askabad, a town of Russian Turkestan, the political centre of Transcaspia, situated on the Transcaspian Railway, 290 miles SE. of Mikhail-ovsk, the seaward terminus, and 232 WNW. of Merv. It was occupied by the Russians in 1S81.
Askeaton, a town in the county, and 15 miles WSW. of the town, of Limerick. Pop. 679.
Askja (Ask'ya; 'basket'), the largest volcano in Iceland, rises near the centre of the island. Its vast circular crater, over 23 sq. m. in area, and about 17 miles in circumference, lies at a depth of over 700 feet within a mountain built up to a height of 4633 feet above the sea. A great eruption in 1875 first called attention to Askja.
Aspe (Asp), a romantic valley (pop. 12,000) in the Western Pyrenees, close to the Spanish frontier. It was formerly a republic under the protection of the princes of Beam. - (2) A town of Spain, 25 miles W. of Alicante. Pop. 7910.