Assiut. See Siout.


Assmannshau'sen, a village on the Rhine, 3 miles below Rudesheim, famous for its red and white wine.


Assos, a ruined town on the Gulf of Edremid, whose still imposing remains were successfully excavated, in 1881-83, by the American Institute of Archaeology.


Assouan' (also Eswan; the ancient Syene) is the southernmost city of Egypt proper, on the right bank of the Nile, and beside the first or lowest cataract. Near are the islands of PhilAe and Elephantine. On the left bank are catacombs. There are some remains of the ancient city. In the neighbourhood are the famous syenite quarries from which so many of the huge obelisks and colossal statues were cut to adorn the temples and palaces of ancient Egypt. Here is the great dam erected (1899-1902) in connection with Egyptian irrigation. Pop. 12,000.


Assumption. See Asuncion.


As'synt, Loch, a beautiful fresh-water lake of Sutherland, 6 1/2 miles E. of Lochinver. Lying 215 feet above sea-level, it measures 6 3/4 miles by | mile. To Ardvreck Castle, on a north-eastern promontory, the Marquis of Montrose was brought a prisoner in 1650.


Asterabad'. See Astuabad.


Asti (Asta Pompeia), a city of Piedmont, lies on the Tanaro, 35 miles ESE. of Turin. The vino d'Asti is a kind of sweet muscatel, effervescing like champagne. Pop. 17,340.


Aston, the name of upwards of 60 English towns, villages, townships, or parishes, the best known being beside Birmingham (q.v.).


Astoria, originally a fur-trading station in Oregon, U.S., on the left bank of the Columbia, founded by the Pacific Fur Company in 1811, and named from its chief proprietor, John Jacob Astor. It was a main point in the American claim to the territory of Oregon (q.v.). There are upwards of 50 large salmon-tinning establishments in the neighbourhood. The lumbering industry is also important. Pop. (1881) 2803; (1891) 6184; (1900) 8381.


Astrabad', a decayed town in the north of Persia, at the foot of the Elburz Mountains, 30 miles SE. of the Caspian. Pop. (1808) 75,000; (1904) 18,000.

Astrolabe Bay

Astrolabe Bay, a large inlet of the sea on the northern coast of the eastern portion of New Guinea, opposite the end of New Britain.


Astu'rias, or Oviedo, a northern province of Spain, washed on the north by the Bay of Biscay. Area, 4091 sq. m.; population, 628,000. The chief towns are Oviedo (q.v.), the capital, Gijon, Aviles, Llanes, and Luarca.


Asuncion (Span. As-soori-thee-oan'), capital of the republic of Paraguay, on Paraguay River, has connection by steamers with Buenos Ayres, and by a railway of 45 miles with Paraguari. Founded in 1537 on the Feast of the Assumption, it has a cathedral (1845) and a trade in leather, tobacco, sugar, manioc, and mate or Paraguay tea. Pop. (1857) 40,000; (1886) 24,838; (1901) 51,700.


Atacama', a northern province of Chili, with an area of 30,400 sq. m., and a population of 70,000. Silver and copper are largely mined, and gold is also found in considerable quantities. Capital, Copiapo; pop. 9916. - The Desert of Atacama till the war of 1879 belonged also partly to Bolivia. Its silver and saltpetre works have to some extent peopled its solitudes.