Auckland, the northern provincial district of New Zealand, includes fully half of North Island, and is about 400 miles long by 200 wide at its widest. The coast-line of nearly 1200 miles is very long in proportion to the area. Volcanic action has deeply left its mark on the surface of Auckland; and the warm lake and geyser scenery of the region about 90 miles SE. below the Bay of Plenty is amongst the most remarkable in the world. The 'Hot Lake' district covers an area 120 miles long by 10 to 15 wide, and includes hot springs, cisterns of hot water, and mud volcanoes; at Rotorua is an admirably equipped bathing-house and sanatorium. The other lakes are Tarawera, Rotoiti, and Rotomahana. The wonderful pink and white terraces near Tarawera Lake were destroyed by a volcanic eruption in 1886. Pop. (1875) 79,104; (1881) 99,451; (1891) 133,267; (1901) 175,870.
Auckland, the largest city in the North Island of New Zealand, on a peninsula 7 miles wide on the Hauraki Gulf. It stands on the south side of Waitemata Harbour, one of the finest harbours in New Zealand; and its splendid wharves and graving-docks offer the most complete facilities for shipping. Auckland is distant from Sydney 1315 miles; from Melbourne, 1650. It possesses also a harbour on the western side of the island in Manukau, only 6 miles across. It has a university college and cathedral, and the foundation stone of a Free Library and Art Gallery was laid in 1885. Shipbuilding, sugar-refining, rope-spinning, and brick-making are among the industries. Pop. (1881) 16,675; (1901) 34,220. Founded in 1840, and named after Lord Auckland, governor-general of India, the town was capital of New Zealand till 1865.