BAALBEK, a ruined city of Syria, 35 miles NNW. of Damascus, and 38 SSE. of Tripoli. The name signifies ' City of Baal,' the Sun-god, and was by the Greeks, during the Seleucide dynasty, converted into Heliopolis. Baalbek lies 4500 feet above sea-level, at the opening of a small valley into the plain of El-Buka'a (Cœ;le-Syria), on the lowest slope of Anti-Lebanon. It was once the most magnificent of Syrian cities, full of palaces, fountains, and beautiful monuments; now it is famous only for the splendour of its ruins - the Great Temple, a Corinthian edifice, surmounting a Cyclopean substruction or platform; the Temple of Jupiter, larger than the Parthenon at Athens; and a circular building, supported on six granite columns. From the earliest times a chief seat of sun-worship, Baalbek was completely pillaged by Timur Beg in 1400; and its destruction was completed by a terrible earthquake in 1759. It is now a wretched village, with some few hundred inhabitants. See works by Wood and Dawkins (1757), Renan (1864), and Frauberger (1891).