Backergunge. See Bakerganj.
Ba'cup, a town of Lancashire, on the Spodden rivulet, 19 1/4 miles N. by E. of Manchester by rail. Constituted a municipal borough in 1882, it has a mechanics' institute (1846, enlarged 1870), a market-hall (1867), a very large co-operative store that cost £22,000, etc. Cotton-spinning and powerloom-weaving are the staple industries; and there are also dye-works, brass and iron foundries, and neighbouring coal-pits and vast stone quarries. Pop. (1798) 1426; (1871) 17,199; (1881) 25,033; (1891) 23,498; (1901) 22,505.
Badajoz (Bad-a-jozz'; Spanish pron. Badh-a-hhoath), capital of a Spanish province, is built on a slight hill crowned by a Moorish castle, on the Guadiana, crossed here by a stone bridge of 28 arches. It is 5 miles from the Portuguese frontier, 174 miles from Lisbon, and 315 from Madrid by rail. Badajoz is a fortress of the first rank, and has an old cathedral built like a fortress, with a splendid organ. Its chief articles of manufacture are hats, soap, coarse woollens, leather, and pottery. Pop. (1900) 30,900. Badajoz was the Pax Augusta of the Romans, the Bax Augos, Bathaljus of the Moors. As one of the keys of Portugal, it has often been besieged - twice in vain by the British in 1811, but was stormed by Wellington in 1812, after a most murderous resistance by the French, and delivered up to pillage for two days. The province has an area of 8687 sq. m., and a pop. of (1900) 520,246.
Badakhshan', a territory of Central Asia, lying in 36 - 38° N. lat., and 69° - 72° E. long., with the chain of the Hindu Kush on the S., and the Oxus, or Amu Darya, on the N. It is drained by the Kokcha, a head-stream of that river, and is famous throughout the East as a picturesque hill-country diversified with woods, rich pasture, and fertile, well-cultivated valleys, its surface varying from 500 to 15,600 feet above sea-level. Faizabad (q.v.) is the capital. The inhabitants, estimated at 100,000, are largely Tajiks, an Aryan race speaking Persian, and Mohammedans.
See Yule's Marco Polo (1871); Wood's Journey to the Source of the Oxus (new ed. 1872); and Vam-bery's Central Asia (1874).
Badalona, a Spanish seaport, 5 miles NE. of Barcelona. Pop. 19,885.
Baden bei Wien (i.e. 'Baden near Vienna;' Bâh-den bī Veane), a watering-place of Austria, on the Schwechat, 17 miles S. by W. of Vienna by rail. It was the Aquœ Pannonicœ of the Romans, and is still famous for its warm mineral springs, which are visited during the season by upwards of 10,000 persons. They are sulphurous, with much carbonic acid gas, have a temperature of 79° to 104° F., and are good for skin diseases, gout, and rheumatism. Pop. 12,500.