Baden-Baden, a town in the grand-duchy of Baden, situated in the pleasant valley of the Oos, at the edge of the Black Forest, 8 miles from the Rhine, and 23 SSW. of Karlsruhe by rail. Pop. above 16,000; but its visitors during the season (May - September) are often four times the number of the settled population. Its thirteen medicinal springs were known to the Romans. They have a temperature of 115° to 150° F., are impregnated with iron, magnesia, lime, and sulphuric and carbonic acids, and are especially recommended in chronic cutaneous diseases, gout, rheumatism, and stomach complaints. The beauty of Baden-Baden has been largely due to its gaming-tables, once the most renowned in Europe, but closed in 1872; besides paying a rent of over 14,000, they devoted a like sum yearly to the beautifying of the promenades and public gardens. The buildings include the Conversationshaus (1824); the new Trinkhalle, or pump-room (1842); the theatre (1862); the Friedrichsbad (1877); the villa occupied by Queen Victoria in 1872 and 1876; the ruined ' old castle' crowning the Schloss-berg; and the ' new castle ' (1479), destroyed, like the old, by the French in 1689, but restored, and now the summer residence of the grand-duke.