Baden (Bah-den), a grand-duchy in the SW. corner of the German empire between Alsace- Lorraine and Wurtemberg, separated from Swit-zerland by the Rhine. Area, 5824 sq. m., less than Yorkshire; pop. (1900) 1,867,944, mainly Catholics. The Schwarzwald, or Black Forest (q.v.), attains a maximum altitude of 4903 feet. Being drained by the Rhine and the Danube, Baden belongs to the basins of two opposite seas; the sources of the Danube, however, drain only some 350 sq. m. The Rhine's chief tributaries are the Neckar, Murg, and Elz. On the north-east the Baden territories are bounded by the Maine. Except a part of the Lake of Constance, Baden has no lake of importance. The Rhine Valley of Baden is one of the warmest and most fruitful districts, not only of Germany, but of Europe. Grain, vegetables of all sorts, tobacco, hemp, rape, opium, etc. are grown, and a large quantity of wine is produced. The principal minerals are the products of the limestone quarries and of the clay and gravel pits, and gypsum, largely used for pavements. Coal, zinc, and manganese are found, and the production of salt and soda is important. Baden is rich in mineral springs; and there are a great number of much-frequented watering-places, as Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, etc.

The manufactures of Baden include ribbons and cotton fabrics, paper, leather, rubber goods, chemicals, machinery, tobacco, chicory, sugar, beer, trinkets, mirrors, wooden clocks, and straw-plaiting. Karlsruhe is the residence of the sovereign; the capitals of the four ' circles' are Constance, Freiburg, Karlsruhe, and Mannheim; and besides, there are two towns each with a population above 20,000.


Baden, a town and fashionable watering-place in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the Limmat, 14 miles NW. of Zurich by rail. Its sulphur-baths, the Thermœ Helvetica of the Romans, yearly attract some 20,000 visitors. Their temperature is as high as 117o F. Pop. 6692.