Bahr, an Arabic word signifying a large body of water, is applied both to lakes and rivers. - Bahr-el-Abiad (the White River), and Bahr-el-Azrak (the Blue River), are the chief branches of the Nile (q.v.). - Bahr-el-Ghazal is the name of the upper branch of the Nile, constituted by the Bahr-el-Arab and many other tributaries, which flows sluggishly eastward to join the Bahr-el-Jebel and so form the Bahr-el-Abiad. The Bahr-el-Ghazal gives name to a province in the SW. of the Egyptian Soudan, bravely held for years by the governor, Frank Lupton. - Bahr-el-Yemen is the Red Sea (q.v.), and Bahr-Lut (Sea of Lot) the Dead Sea (q.v.).
Bahrein Islands, or Aval Islands, a group of islands in the Persian Gulf. The most important of these is Bahrein (pop. 40,000), 33 miles long and 10 broad. Manama, the capital, has a good harbour. The Bahrein Islands are chiefly remarkable for their pearl-fisheries, which employ, during the season, from 1000 to 2000 boats, each manned with from 8 to 20 men. The annual value of the pearls is estimated at upwards of £300,000. The islands are inhabited by Arabs, and since 1861 have been under English protection. Pop. 70,000.
Baiae, a small town of antiquity, on the coast of Campania, 10 miles W. of Naples and opposite Puteoli. The ruins still standing on the desolate coast, or visible beneath the clear waters of the sea, are now the only evidence of its former magnificence.
Bailen', or Baylen, a town of Andalusia, Spain, 22 miles N. of Jaen. Pop. 7988. Here, on July 19, 1808, the Spaniards won their first and only victory over the French, 18,000 of whom laid down their arms.
Baireuth, or Bayreuth (Bye'roit), capital of the Bavarian province of Upper Franconia, on the Red Maine, 43 miles NNE. of Nuremberg by rail. Its principal buildings are the old palace, dating from 1454; the new palace (1753); the old opera-house (1748); and a magnificent ' national theatre' (1875) for the performance of the operas of Wagner, who, dying at Venice, was in 1883 buried in the garden of his villa here. Jean Paul Richter died here in 1825, and a monument has been erected to his memory. Baireuth's chief articles of industry are cottons, woollens, linen, leather, tobacco, parchment, and porcelain. Population, 30,000, of whom only about 15 per cent, are Catholics. See Milner-Barry's Baireuth and the Franconian Switzerland (1887).