Balwearie, 2 miles W. by S. of Kirkcaldy, the ruined tower of the 'wizard' Sir Michael Scott.


Bambarra, one of the Soudan states of Western Africa, lying (where 5° W. long, and 12° N. lat. cross one another) on both sides of the Upper Niger. The inhabitants, a branch of the Man-dingoes, number about 2,000,000, and are superior to their neighbours in intelligence. The upper classes profess Mohammedanism, but the lower are pagans. The principal towns are Sego, San-sanding, Yamina, and Bammako. In 1881 a French treaty with the sultan of Sego opened the country, which is now in the French sphere.


Bamberg, a Bavarian city, in Upper Fran-conia, on the Regnitz, 3 miles above its confluence with the Main, and 33 N. of Nuremberg by rail. Set in the midst of vineyards, orchards, and hop-gardens, and founded about 769, from 1007 to 1802 it was the seat of independent prince-bishops. The magnificent Romanesque cathedral, founded by the Emperor Henry II. in 1004, has five towers, and contains the elaborately carved tomb of the founder and his empress, Cunigunda. Opposite it is the palace (1702) of the former prince-bishops, from one of whose windows Marshal Berthier met his death. St Michael's Benedictine abbey (1009) was in 1803 converted into an almshouse. The ruins of the castle of Altenburg stand on an eminence 1 mile from the town. Pop. (1871)

25,738; (1900) 41,850, who manufacture beer, cotton, cloth, gloves, tobacco, etc.

Bamborough Castle

Bamborough Castle, an ancient fortress on the Northumbrian coast, 5 miles E. of Belford, and l6 1/2 SB. of Berwick. Crowning a basaltic rock, 150 feet high, it was founded about 547 by Ida the 'Flame-bearer,' first king of North-umbria, and named Bebbanburh, after Bebbe, his queen. Forfeited by Tom Forster for his share in the '15, it was purchased by Bishop Crewe, and bequeathed by him in 1721 to trustees for benevolent purposes. In 1894 it was purchased from the trustees by Lord Armstrong, and endowed as an almshouse of cultured poverty. Bamborough village was a royal borough before the Conquest, and in Edward I.'s time returned two members. Grace Darling is buried in the churchyard. See vol. i. of Bateson's History of Northumberland (1893).


Bambouk, a country of Senegambia, Western Africa, lying in the angle formed by the Senegal and Faleme rivers. It has rich iron ore and deposits of gold in its rivers, especially the Faleme. Faranaba and Mandinka are the chief towns. The inhabitants, Mandingoes, are professedly Mohammedans.


Bamian, a mountain-valley in Afghanistan, on the road between Kabul and Turkestan, and near the northern base of the Koh-i-baba range. It lies 8500 feet above sea-level, is drained by a feeder of the Oxus. The inhabitants are Hazaras. The most notable feature of the district is a number of Buddhist figures of enormous size carved in the conglomerate cave-pierced rocks, 200 to 300 feet high, which form the northern side of the valley. Of these there are five; and the two principal were described by a Chinese Buddhist monk about 630 a.d. The largest is 173 feet high, or 3 feet higher than the Nelson Monument in Trafalgar Square.